Journal of Environmental Treatment Techniques                      PDF
2017, Volume 5, Issue 4, Pages: 118-123
J. Environ. Treat. Tech.
ISSN: 2309-1185
Journal weblink: http://www.jett.dormaj.com
Reuse of Wastes in Concrete
Maqbool, S.M., Bilal, A., Arshad, A., Rehan, A.M., Awais, A.
National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan
Received: 20/06/2017
Accepted: 03/10/2017
Published: 30/10/2017
Abstract
The concrete is considered to be the 2nd most abundantly used material in the world after water. Since, its preparation
causes rapid environmental degradation. Therefore, efforts are being made for a sustainable development to secure the
environment. This study was design to study the usage of locally available waste materials in concrete. The cement was
replaced by MWG, sand by waste glass and coarse aggregate by demolished concrete material, at varying proportions. More
than 150 cylinders were casted using various ingredients proportionality to study the compressive strength at 7th day, 14th
day and 28th day. An additional 60 prisms were also prepared to study the 28 days flexural strength. Using SYSTAT
software, the percentage partial replacement of cement, fine and coarse aggregate, for the matrix of green concrete
preparation, was calculated to be 9%, 37% and 74%, respectively, with a water-cement ratio of 0.45. The ultimate laboratory
analysis of the green concrete, illustrates that its compression and flexural strength is 3-4% more than that of the normal
concrete rendering cost saving and reducing environmental impact. The paper besides using various gradation of waste glass
as partial replacement of cement and fine aggregate and recycled aggregate as partial replacement of coarse aggregate also
used a novel technique of Response Surface Analysis to reach optimum replacement volume fractions.
Keywords: Wastes, environmental preservation, concrete, strength
environmental degradation, is commonly known as green
1 Introduction1
The concrete usage started longtime ago, as Romans
concrete. The green concrete will have less energy
used it as late as 300. Today, concrete is extensively used
intensive while being eco-friendly, economical, with
considerably improved mechanical properties, toughness
construction material worldwide, with an annual
production of
5.0 billion cubic yards. The concrete
and will preserve the nature as well (Zhang et al., 2008).
quantity is approximately double of all other construction
The rapid global developments that took place in the
past few decades have opened proficient replacement of
materials in use (Harald et al., 2014, Arshad et al., 2014).
Normally, the cement, sand and aggregate are mixed in
concrete ingredients with other materials of the similar
definite proportions to form a concrete with the water-
nature and properties, with considerable strength and
durability. Various materials like demolished brick work,
cement ratio an important factor which decides the
strength of concrete. However, the quality of concrete is
concrete debris, fly ash, rice husks, waste wood, plastic
evaluated through its compressive and flexural strength,
chips, broken tiles etc, have been used successful by
durability, permeability, elastic modulus etc (Bambang,
different researchers to develop green concrete with
2014).
optimum strength (Aldahdood et al., 2013, Vlastimir et
al., 2013, Harn and Susmita, 2014, Zhao and Sun, 2014).
Cement is one of its major ingredients, but its
production releases excessive amount of CO2, i.e., 1 ton
It not only reduces the burden on natural deposits but
of CO2 is released per 1 ton of cement production. The
also saves us from dumping of waste materials into
landfills (Abraham et al., 2014, Chen et al., 2013).
conservation and environmental protection has become a
major global issue, especially in context of reducing CO2
As the green concrete is a revolutionary concept in
emission on a large scale (James and Masanobu, 2013,
the history of concrete. Green concrete structures such as
bridges, dams, platforms, columns exist today and are
Payam et al., 2013). It is estimated that more than 10%
of the total world CO2 comes from the cement
practiced in countries where waste disposal systems and
manufacturing sources, as more than 1.89 billion ton of
its recycling are in order. In Pakistan, the concept has
started gaining acceptance and sooner we will see many
cement is produced annually world-wide (Megat et al.,
2013, Bisceglie et al., 2014, Sheen et al., 2014). The
green concrete structures
(Heede and Belie,
2012,
concept of cleaner technology, give more stress to the
Qianqian et al., 2014, Mahdi et al., 2014). Some recent
examples are the use of high volumes of fly ash,
reduction of CO2 emission. That could also be done by
means of saving cement, through partial replacement
utilization of micro silica in high rise buildings and
with other similar materials, recycling various cement or
manufacturing of cement with reduced environmental
impact through use of mineralized performance
concrete materials (Chitnis et al., 2005, Wang and Tan,
2006). And such type of concrete, which does not lead to
improvers, waste derived fuel and byproducts as alternate
raw materials etc (Corrochano et al., 2013). This study is
also inline with the same concept in that different
Corresponding author: Arshad Ali, National University
gradation of wastes glass was used as partial replacement
of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan. E-
of cement and sand, whereas recycled coarse aggregate
mail: aliarshad08@yahoo.com.
from concrete debris was used as partial replacement of
118
Journal of Environmental Treatment Techniques
2017, Volume 5, Issue 4, Pages: 118-123
coarse aggregate in concrete. Important engineering
04. Locally available dry sand of Lawrencepur site,
properties were evaluated and cost effect analysis was
graded between 4.75mm (#4 Sieve) and 150μm (#100
carried out to ascertain the feasibility of optimum
Sieve) was used for all the samples. And the “Margalla
replacement through the use of Response Surface
Crush” was used with nominal maximum size of
¾
Analysis.
inches. The result of sieve analysis of sand and crush is
shown in the Table 2 and Table 3, respectively. The
2 Material and Methodology
Aggregate Impact Value of 15.48% was calculated as per
In this study Ordinary Portland Cement
(OPC)
IS:2386 (Part-4) to measure resistance of aggregate to
sudden impact (Harald et al., 2014, Susilorini et al.,
confirming to ASTM C150 Type-1, Cherat Cement was
used. The Initial and Final Setting Times of cement were
2014).
determined as per IS:4031, using the
“Vicat Needle
The powder form wastes glass, called the Milled
Waste Glass (MWG), obtained from the dump yard of
Apparatus” (Arshad et al., 2014). The results are shown
in Table 1.
“Gunj Glass Factory, Hasanabdal” was used to replace
the cement in concrete. For the replacement of fine
aggregate in concrete, a waste glass graded between
Table 1: Results of Vicats Needle Test
4.75mm (#4 Sieve) and 150μm (#100 Sieve) was used
Consistency
Initial Setting
Final Setting
(Luca, 2011). And the recycled aggregate of slabs, in the
(%)
Time (min)
Time (min)
form of previously casted broken concrete cylinders
obtained from the concrete testing laboratory, with
31
104
367
nominal maximum size of ¾ inches were also used to
replace coarse aggregate during this study.
The sieve analysis of various ingredients was
performed in accordance with the ASTM Standard C136-
Table 2: Sieve analysis of sand
4
1.3
1.3
0.3
0.3
99.7
95-100
95
100
8
16.4
17.7
3.9
4.2
95.8
80-100
80
100
16
64.3
82
15.4
19.7
80.3
50-85
50
85
30
110.8
192.8
26.6
46.3
53.7
25-60
25
60
50
130.3
323.1
31.3
77.6
22.4
10-30
10
30
100
84.5
407.6
20.3
97.8
2.2
2-10
2
10
200
1
408.6
0.2
98.1
1.9
0
0
0
PAN
8
416.6
1.9
100.0
0.0
Total
416.6
FM = 2.46
Table 3: Sieve analysis of coarse aggregate
1"
0
0
0
0
100
3/4"
42
42
4
4
96
1/2"
421
463
43
47
53
3/8"
292
755
30
77
23
3/16"
214
969
22
99
1
PAN
8
977
1
100
0
Total
977
119
Journal of Environmental Treatment Techniques
2017, Volume 5, Issue 4, Pages: 118-123
The sieve analysis data of MWG and recycled
75% with wastes glass and recycled aggregate,
aggregate is shown in Table 4 and Table 5, respectively.
respectively (Zhang et al., 2008). Tables 8 and 9, show
The following experimental matrices were prepared
the ingredient composition of concrete with partial
using standard procedures
(Mesci and Elevli
2012,
replacement of fine and coarse aggregates.
Salawu et al., 2014).
A total number of 154 cylinders were casted of
1.
Normal concrete (designate with NC)
various ingredients proportions to study the compressive
2.
Cement replacement with MWG (designated with
strength of the design concrete at 7, 14 and 28 day. For a
CR)
28-days flexural strength test, additional 60 prisms were
3.
Fine aggregate replacement with waste glass
also prepared for different concrete ingredients
(designated with FAR)
proportions.
4.
Coarse aggregate replacement with recycled
A response surface analysis was done using SYSTAT
aggregate (designated with CAR)
software by adopting the canonical analysis, ridge
Three 3.0 different trial matrices of a normal concrete
analysis and desirability analysis techniques to determine
were formulated as shown in the Table 6. A constant
the final matrix of the “Green Concrete”. The 28-days
slump of 2-3 inches was maintained in all the samples for
compressive and flexural strengths and the cost of each
consistency. But the TM-3 (Trial Matrix-3) with highest
matrix were used as an input basis for the response
28 days strength, i.e.
5075 psi, was selected for the
surface analysis (Harn and Susmita 2014, Mahdi et al.,
replacements of different concrete ingredients during the
2014, Qianqian et al., 2014). Finally, 9 cylinders and 3
study.
prisms of green concrete were casted to study with
As shown in Table 7, the MWG was used in different
refined proportions to evaluate their compressive and
percentages as a partial replacement of cement in
flexural strengths.
concrete by 5%, 10% and 15%. Whereas, both the fine
and course aggregate was replaced by 25%, 50% and
Table 4: Sieve analysis of MWG
1.7
4
5
5
1.7
98.3
95-100
95
100
21.2
8
62
67
22.9
77.1
80-100
80
100
16
41
108
14.0
37.0
63.0
50-85
50
85
30
112
220
38.4
75.3
24.7
25-60
25
60
50
40
260
13.7
89.0
11.0
10-30
10
30
100
30
290
10.3
99.3
0.7
2-10
2
10
0.3
200
1
291
99.7
0.3
0
0
0
PAN
1
292
0.3
100.0
0.0
Total
292
FM = 3.25
3 Results and Discussion
The Fig
1-3 illustrates the
7,
14 and
28 days
Table 5: Sieve analysis of recycled aggregate
compressive strength of various types of concretes used
1"
0
0
0
0
100
in this study. The compressive strength of NC (Normal
3/4"
83
83
6
6
94
Concrete) was observed to be
3236psi,
4685psi and
1/2"
748
831
53
59
41
5075psi on the 7th, 14th and 28th day. As shown in the
3/8"
321
1152
23
82
18
figures, the results of 75-CAR (76% Coarse Aggregate
3/16"
247
1399
18
99
1
Replacement) are more than all the samples tested in this
PAN
8
1407
1
100
0
study. It might be due to the reason that the recycled
Total
1407
aggregates are more compact and denser; therefore, they
can provide better compressive strength
(Chen et al.,
Though, the compressive strength of 5-CR and 10-
2013, Payam et al.,
2014). The
50-CAR was also
CR at 7th and 28th days are observed to be more than that
observed to have more compressive strength than that of
the NC during all tests for compressive strength. It was
of the NC, but an abrupt decease in the strength was
noticed once the ratio of cement replacement was raised
also noticed that the 15-CR (15% Cement Replacement)
from 5-10% to 15%. Though, the 14th day compressive
gives comparatively, minimum compressive strength.
strength of both the samples, i.e., the 5-CR and 10-CR
was observed to be less than that of the NC. With respect
120
Journal of Environmental Treatment Techniques
2017, Volume 5, Issue 4, Pages: 118-123
to 28 days compressive strength it can be extracted that
stronger than the normal cement in flexural, if used in
the 5-10% CR with MWG or 50-75% CAR with recycled
concrete to certain proportionality only. Contrary, the 15-
aggregate can be safely used in concrete, owing to higher
CR shows comparatively a weak response to flexural, as
strength than that of the NC.
its strength was observed to be 920psi.
The 28-days flexural strength of 25-FAR, 50-FAR
Table 6: Composition of trial matrix
and 75-FAR samples was noticed to be 943psi, 999psi
TM-1
TM-2
TM-3
and 903psi, respectively. Whereas, the 10-CR 50-CAR
Ingredients
(kg/m3)
(kg/m3)
(kg/m3)
and 75-CAR show better results than that of the NC, i.e.
Water
199
199
233.23
1205psi, 1100psi and 1346psi, respectively. The 2-days
flexural strength of 75-CAR is 24% more than that of the
Cement
423.4
414.11
519.2
NC. As mentioned earlier, the recycle aggregate are
relatively more compact, therefore, they can safely
Fine aggregate
667.6
744.6
519.2
replaced with the coarse aggregate. Figure 1-4 confirms
Coarse aggregate
1020
944
1038.3
the better compression and flexural strength of the coarse
Water/cement ratio
0.47
0.48
0.45
aggregate replacement with recycled aggregate. Fig 1-4
also provides guidelines for the usage of various concrete
Compressive strength
3101psi
3465psi
5075psi
ingredients replacement to achieve economical and safe
desired strength results.
Table 7: Partial replacement of cement with MWG
Table
10 and 11, shows the results of response
5%
10%
15%
Ingredients
surface analysis using SYSTAT and the calculated final
(kg/m3)
(kg/m3)
(kg/m3)
composition of matrix for the green concrete (Harald et
al.,
2014, Yu et al., 2014). The designed percentage
Water
233.23
233.23
233.23
replacement of cement, fine aggregate and the coarse
Cement
493.24
467.28
441.32
aggregate was calculated to be
9%, 37% and 74%,
respectively. Finally, as computed,
233.2kg of water,
MWG
25.96
51.92
77.88
472.5kg of cement, 46.7kg of MWG, 327.1kg of fine
aggregate,
270kg of coarse aggregate and 768.4kg of
Fine aggregate
519.2
519.2
519.2
recycle aggregate is required for the preparation of one
Coarse aggregate
1038.4
1038.4
1038.4
cubic meter of green concrete, with a water-cement ratio
of 0.45.
Water/cement ratio
0.45
0.45
0.45
Table 10: Results of SYSTAT
Table 8: Partial replacement of fine aggregate with
Factors
Optimum responses
wastes glass
28-Compressive strength =
Cement = 9%
25%
50%
75%
7790psi
Ingredients
(kg/m3)
(kg/m3)
(kg/m3)
Fine aggregate = 37%
28-Flexural strength = 1598psi
Coarse aggregate = 74%
Cost = 43USD/m3
Water
233.23
233.23
233.23
Cement
519.2
519.2
519.2
Table 11: Final matrix of the Green Concrete (kg/m3)
Water
233.2
Fine aggregate
389.4
259.6
129.8
Cement
472.5
MWG
46.7
Waste glass
129.8
259.6
389.4
Fine aggregate
327.1
Coarse aggregate
270.0
Coarse aggregate
1038.4
1038.4
1038.4
Recycled aggregate
768.4
Water/cement ratio
0.45
0.45
0.45
Water/cement ratio
0.45
Refer to Fig
5, the
7-days,
14-days and 28-days
Table 9: Partial replacement of coarse aggregate with
compressive strength of green concrete was observed as
recycled aggregate
3317psi, 4322psi and 5326psi, respectively. While its 28-
25%
50%
75%
days flexural strength was noticed to be 1065psi. Fig 6
Ingredients
(kg/m3)
(kg/m3)
(kg/m3)
illustrates the strength comparison of green concrete with
Water
233.23
233.23
233.23
that of the normal concrete. As shown, the compressive
and flexural strength of the green concrete was observed
Cement
519.2
519.2
519.2
to be more by 3-4% than that of the normal concrete.
Thus, the design green concrete is comparatively better
Fine aggregate
519.2
519.2
519.2
both in the compression and flexural, with relatively
Coarse aggregate
778.8
519.2
259.6
minimal cost.
Recycled aggregate
259.6
519.2
778.8
4 Conclusions and Recommendations
Though with a minor drawbacks, as the particles size
Water/cement ratio
0.45
0.45
0.45
of recycled aggregate are more cementitious that
increases the water absorption ratio, which gives rise to
The results of 28-days flexural strength are shown in
the attachment of greater amount of mortar paste to the
the Fig 4. The flexural strength of NC was observed to be
surface of recycled aggregate particles, and ultimately
1029psi; almost same values were obtained for the 5-CR
causes more shrinkage on drying. Similarly, if the size of
and 25-CAR samples. However, the 28-days flexural
glass particle is slightly larger, it can give rise to alkali
strength results of 10-CR was unexpected, i.e., 1205psi.
silica reaction that can reduce the strength. But still the
It might be because of the reason that the MWG are
usage of various types of wastes is cost-effective for
121
Journal of Environmental Treatment Techniques
2017, Volume 5, Issue 4, Pages: 118-123
concrete, without compromising on its quality.
Such practices will reduce the burden on natural deposits,
Moreover, if the size of MWG is less than 100μm, then it
making this world Green.
can acts as a pozzolanic material, overcoming the
However, further investigations on green concrete for
drawbacks caused by the alkali silica reactions. It is also
long term strength are recommended. And the
concluded that the recycled aggregate and MWG when
environmental and casting factors need to be
used together forms an improved interfacial transition
incorporated during advance studies on the same subject.
zone.
Fig. 5: Compressive and flexural strength of Green Concrete
Fig.
2.
14-Days compressive strength of various types of
concrete used in the study (NC = Normal concrete, 5,10,15-
CR = Percentage cement replacement, 25,50,75-FAR/CAR =
Percentage fine/coarse aggregate replacement)
Fig. 6: Strength comparison of normal concrete and green
concrete
References
Abraham, T., Martin, B., Anicka, A., Chungen, Y. and
Lasse,
R.
(2014).
Simulation
of
flash
dehydroxylation of clay particle using gPROMS: A
move towards green concrete. Energy Procedia,
61,
Fig.
3:
28-Days compressive strength of various types of
556-559.
concrete used in the study (NC = Normal concrete, 5,10,15-CR
Aldahdooh, M.A., Bunnori, N.M. and Johari, M. (2013).
= Percentage cement replacement,
25,50,75-FAR/CAR
=
Development of green ultra-high performance fiber
Percentage fine/coarse aggregate replacement)
reinforced concrete containing ultrafine palm oil fuel
ash. Construction and Building Materials, 48, 379-
389.
Arshad, A., Shahid, I., Anwar, U.H.C., Baig, M.N.,
Khan, S. and Shakir, K. (2014). The wastes utility in
concrete. International Journal of Environmental
Research, 8(4), 1323-1328
Bambang, S. (2014). Toward green concrete for better
sustainable environment. Procedia Engineering, 95,
305-320.
Bisceglie, F., Gigante, E. and Bergonzoni, M. (2014).
Utilization of waste Autoclaved Aerated Concrete as
lighting material in the structure of a green roof.
Construction and Building Materials, 69, 351-361.
Chen, S.H., Wang, H.Y. and Jhou, J.W.
(2013).
Fig. 4: 28-Days flexural strength of various types of concrete
Investigating the properties of lightweight concrete
used in the study
(NC = Normal concrete,
5,10,15-CR
=
containing high contents of recycled green building
Percentage cement replacement,
25,50,75-FAR/CAR
=
materials. Construction and Building Materials, 48,
Percentage fine/coarse aggregate replacement)
98-103.
Chitnis, M.R., Desai, Y.M., Shah, A.H. and Kant, T.
Furthermore, the production of glass particles and
(2005).
Elastodynamic Green’s function for
glass powder by crushing requires far less effort and
reinforced concrete beams. International Journal of
energy as compared to the production of other pozzolanic
Solids and Structures, 42(15), 4414-4435.
materials. And the cheaply available recycled aggregate
Corrochano, B.J., Alonso, A. and Rodas, M.
(2013).
can be easily obtained from any demolished site and can
Sequential extraction for evaluating the behavior of
be converted to suitable size by using portable crushers.
selected chemical elements in light weight aggregates
122
Journal of Environmental Treatment Techniques
2017, Volume 5, Issue 4, Pages: 118-123
manufactured from mining and industrial wastes.
Payam, S., Jumaat, M.Z., Hilmi, B.M. and Johnson, A.
International Journal of Environmental Research,
(2013). Oil palm shell lightweight concrete
7(3), 539-550.
containing high volume ground granulated blast
Harald, S.M., Michael, H. and Vogel, M.
(2014).
furnace slag. Construction and Building Materials,
Assessment of the sustainability potential of concrete
40, 231-238.
and concrete structures
considering
their
Qianqian, Z., Xiaoke, W., Peiqiang, H., Wuxing, W.,
environmental impact, performance and lifetime.
Ruida, L., Yufen, R. and Zhiyun, O. (2014). Quality
Construction and Building Materials,
67(C),
321-
and seasonal variation of rainwater harvested from
337.
concrete, asphalt, ceramic tile and green roofs in
Harald, S.M., Raphael, B., Jack, S.M. and Michael, H.
Chongqing, China. Journal of Environmental
(2014). Design and properties of sustainable
Management, 132, 178-187.
concrete. Procedia Engineering, 95, 290-304.
Salawu, A., Ismail, M., Zaimi, M.A., Majid, Z.A.,
Harn, W.K. and Susmita, K. (2014). An attributional and
Abdullah, C. and Jahangir, M.
(2014). Green
consequential life cycle assessment of substituting
Bambusa Arundinacea leaves extract as a sustainable
concrete with bricks. Journal of Cleaner Production,
corrosion inhibitor in steel reinforced concrete.
81, 190-200.
Journal of Cleaner Production, 67, 139-146.
Heede, P.V. and Belie, N.D.
(2012). Environmental
Sheen, Y.N., Wang, H.Y and Sun, T.H.
(2014).
impact and life cycle assessment (LCA) of traditional
Properties of green concrete containing stainless steel
and
‘green’ concretes: Literature review and
oxidizing slag resource materials. Construction and
theoretical calculations. Cement and Concrete
Building Materials, 50, 22-27.
Composites, 34(4), 431-442.
Susilorini, M.I.R., Hardjasaputra, H., Tudjono, S.,
James, X. and Masanobu, S.
(2013). Rubberized
Hapsari, G., Wahyu, S.R., Hadikusumo, G. and
concrete: A green structural material with enhanced
Sucipto, J. (2014). The advantage of natural polymer
energy-dissipation capability. Construction and
modified mortar with seaweed: Green construction
Building Materials, 42, 196-204.
material innovation for sustainable concrete.
Luca, G., Filippo, M. and Marco, A.B. (2011). Assessing
Procedia Engineering, 95, 419-425.
environmental impact of green buildings through
Vlastimir, R., Mirjana, M., Snežana, M., Ali, E. and
LCA methods: A comparison between reinforced
Saed, A.M.
(2013). Green recycled aggregate
concrete and wood structures in the European
concrete. Construction and Building Materials, 47,
context. Procedia Engineering, 21, 1199-1206.
1503-1511.
Mahdi, V., Yekkalar, M., Shekarchi, M. and Panahi, S.
Wang, Z.H. and Tan, K.H.
(2007). Temperature
(2014). Environmental assessment of green concrete
prediction for contour-insulated concrete-filled CHS
containing natural zeolite on the global warming
subjected to fire using large time green’s function
index in marine environments. Journal of Cleaner
solutions. Journal of Constructional Steel Research,
Production, 65, 418-423
63(7), 997-1007.
Megat, M.A.J., Zeyad, A.M., Bunnori, N.M. and Ariffin.,
Yu, R., Spiesz, P. and Brouwers, H.J.
(2014). Static
K.S. (2012). Engineering and transport properties of
properties and impact resistance of a green Ultra-
high-strength green concrete containing high volume
High Performance Hybrid Fibre Reinforced Concrete
of ultrafine palm oil fuel ash. Construction and
(UHPHFRC): Experiments
and
modeling.
Building Materials, 30, 281-288.
Construction and Building Materials, 68, 158-171.
Mesci, B. and Elevli, S. (2012). Recycling of chromite
Zhang, Y., Wei, S., Liu, S., Jiao, C. and Lai, J. (2008).
waste for concrete: Full factorial design approach.
Preparation of C200 green reactive powder concrete
International Journal of Environmental Research,
and its static-dynamic behaviors. Cement and
6(1), 145-150.
Concrete Composites, 30(9), 831-838.
Payam, S., Hilmi, B.M., Mohd, Z.B.J., Rasel, A. and
Zhao, S. and Sun, W. (2014). Nano-mechanical behavior
Syamsul, B. (2014). Structural lightweight aggregate
of a green ultra-high performance concrete.
concrete using two types of waste from the palm oil
Construction and Building Materials, 63, 150-160.
industry as aggregate. Journal of Cleaner Production,
80, 187-196.
123