Journal of Environmental Treatment Techniques
2020, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages: 809-817
J. Environ. Treat. Tech.
Journal web link: http://www.jett.dormaj.com
Phycoremediation of Paper and Pulp Mill Effluent
using Planktochlorella nurekis and Chlamydomonas
reinhardtii – A Comparative Study
Praveen Kumar Chakkalathundiyil Sasi , AmbilyViswanathan , Jerry Mechery , Daniya
Mundakkal Thomas , Jomon Puthenpurakkal Jacob and Sylas Variyattel Paulose
School of Environmental Sciences, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, Kerala- 686560, India
Department of Applied Chemistry, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi, Kerala- 682 022 India
In the present study, the wastewater collected from a paper and pulp mill industry was treated using two microalgae, Planktochlorella
nurekis and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The microalgae was grown in paper and pulp mill effluent (PPME) under natural environmental
conditions and harvested on the 12 day. Results of the study showed that both P.nurekis and C. reinhardtii could reduce nitrate (96 %
and 86%), phosphate (100% and 88%), COD (92% and 93%) and other physico-chemical parameters after the experiment. The
percentage reduction of heavy metals such as Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Sr and Cd were 100%, 97%, 77%,71%, 72%, 98%, 88% and 88%
respectively by P.nurekis. Similarly the percentage reduction of the foresaid heavy metals were 100%, 46%, 44%, 49%, 68%, 57%, 86%
and 86% respectively by C. reinhardtii. The lipid content of P.nurekis was 24% and 20.5% for C.reinhardtii was after the experiment.
Comparatively, P.nurekis exhibited significantly higher phycoremediation capacity as well as lipid production potential than C.
reinhardtii. It is evident that both microalgae have the potential for the treatment of paper and pulp mill effluent and both the species
can be used as good candidates for lipid production.
Keywords: Phycoremediation, paper and pulp mill effluent, Heavy metals, Lipids, P.nurekis, C. reinhardtii
14, 15, 16]. As an alternative, phycoremediation employing
microalgae for the removal of the nutrients from wastewater is
gaining much attention [17, 18-23]. Phycoremediation is used
to describe treatment of pollutants in a contaminated area using
micro and macroalgae [24-28].
Microalgae can be easily cultured in fresh water, marine
water, brackish water or on non-arable land. They do not
compete with agriculture for existing resources. Microalgae
utilize atmospheric carbon dioxide during their photosynthetic
process and also have proven their potential to abate
greenhouse gases. They reproduce rapidly, achieving faster
growth than any energy crop and can be harvested frequently
Globally, the paper and pulp mill industry is listed as