Journal of Environmental Treatment Techniques  
2020, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages: 809-817  
J. Environ. Treat. Tech.  
ISSN: 2309-1185  
Journal web link: http://www.jett.dormaj.com  
Phycoremediation of Paper and Pulp Mill Effluent  
using Planktochlorella nurekis and Chlamydomonas  
reinhardtii A Comparative Study  
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Praveen Kumar Chakkalathundiyil Sasi , AmbilyViswanathan , Jerry Mechery , Daniya  
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Mundakkal Thomas , Jomon Puthenpurakkal Jacob and Sylas Variyattel Paulose  
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School of Environmental Sciences, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, Kerala- 686560, India  
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Department of Applied Chemistry, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi, Kerala- 682 022 India  
Received: 16/12/2019  
Accepted: 13/04/2020  
Published: 20/05/2020  
Abstract  
In the present study, the wastewater collected from a paper and pulp mill industry was treated using two microalgae, Planktochlorella  
nurekis and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The microalgae was grown in paper and pulp mill effluent (PPME) under natural environmental  
th  
conditions and harvested on the 12 day. Results of the study showed that both P.nurekis and C. reinhardtii could reduce nitrate (96 %  
and 86%), phosphate (100% and 88%), COD (92% and 93%) and other physico-chemical parameters after the experiment. The  
percentage reduction of heavy metals such as Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Sr and Cd were 100%, 97%, 77%,71%, 72%, 98%, 88% and 88%  
respectively by P.nurekis. Similarly the percentage reduction of the foresaid heavy metals were 100%, 46%, 44%, 49%, 68%, 57%, 86%  
and 86% respectively by C. reinhardtii. The lipid content of P.nurekis was 24% and 20.5% for C.reinhardtii was after the experiment.  
Comparatively, P.nurekis exhibited significantly higher phycoremediation capacity as well as lipid production potential than C.  
reinhardtii. It is evident that both microalgae have the potential for the treatment of paper and pulp mill effluent and both the species  
can be used as good candidates for lipid production.  
Keywords: Phycoremediation, paper and pulp mill effluent, Heavy metals, Lipids, P.nurekis, C. reinhardtii  
Introduction1  
[
14, 15, 16]. As an alternative, phycoremediation employing  
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microalgae for the removal of the nutrients from wastewater is  
gaining much attention [17, 18-23]. Phycoremediation is used  
to describe treatment of pollutants in a contaminated area using  
micro and macroalgae [24-28].  
Microalgae can be easily cultured in fresh water, marine  
water, brackish water or on non-arable land. They do not  
compete with agriculture for existing resources. Microalgae  
utilize atmospheric carbon dioxide during their photosynthetic  
process and also have proven their potential to abate  
greenhouse gases. They reproduce rapidly, achieving faster  
growth than any energy crop and can be harvested frequently  
Globally, the paper and pulp mill industry is listed as