Journal of Environmental Treatment Techniques  
2020, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages: 804-808  
J. Environ. Treat. Tech.  
ISSN: 2309-1185  
Journal web link:  
The Meaning of Social Projects in Sphere of Health  
Formation for Adult Population  
Elena V. Bystritskaya , Gerold L. Drandrov , Vladimir A. Burtsev Oleg A. Musin , Elena L.  
Grigoryev , Maria V. Lebedkina , Vladimir A. Kuznetsov  
Department of Physical Education Theoretical Foundations, Kozma Minin Nizhny Novgorod State Pedagogical University, Nizhny Novgorod,  
Russian Federation  
Department of Sports Disciplines, Chuvash State Pedagogical University named after I. Yakovlev, Cheboksary, Russian Federation  
Department of Theory and Methods of Physical Culture and Sports, Volga Region State Academy of Physical Culture, Sport and Tourism, Kazan,  
Russian Federation  
Department of Physical Cultural, Kozma Minin Nizhny Novgorod State Pedagogical University, Nizhny Novgorod, Russian Federation  
Received: 18/12/2019  
Accepted: 19/03/2020  
Published: 20/02/2020  
This article considers actual problem of exposing target audience and determining focus group for social projects of health  
preservation among the country’s adult population which is worsened due to changing of the age of retirement. Periodization of  
population based on health components’ condition in different periods of life should be useful. Also it is topical to search modern  
meaningful contents and technologies, which were implemented within projects directed on improvement not only separate health  
components (physical, psychic and social), but also on their integrated status. The relevance of this problem is reflected in barriers of  
health implementation technologies’ implementation analyzed by authors. These barriers are related to subjects of this process and with  
sociocultural environment where this activity is being realized. The purpose of this article is to describe classification by age of adult  
population based on health components and to offer a project directed on health preservation and correction of all health components for  
one of these categories, using authors’ classification. Another goal is to present efficient social project to improve ternary health of  
selected part of population (pre-retirement and retirement) based on health forming technologies. The basis of authors’ research is  
methodological nature-conformity concept of social and educational activity. This concept is consist of taking into the account for actual  
state of all health components of target audience representatives in course of social design, and also in orienting it into the field of next  
stage of development. However, if we are talking about pre-retirement and retirement population, it can be interpreted as concept of  
ecological defense of human’s body and personality from negative effects of environment. Authors show the solution of mentioned  
problem of target audience choice, based on periodization of age by state of ternary health and prove the meaning of this solution from  
the perspective of mature and senior age persons involvement in socially and personally significant project activity. To that end,  
periodization of age has been offered, which reflects need of ternary health preservation. According to authors’ periodization the  
technology of ternary health forming for pre-retirement and retirement age has been developed. The results, that prove effectiveness of  
health preserving social project, developed by authors, are presented and discussed.  
Keywords: Mature and senior age persons, Periodization of age, Ternary health, Sociocultural environment, Project activity, Health  
preserving technology  
The adult population of our country is presented by several  
35 to 50 years are targeted more on family and professional  
responsibilities, often to the detriment to their health. People in  
pre-retirement and retirement age are forced to correct their  
health for preserving their social and personal status, but have  
little knowledge about ternary health condition [7]. As we can  
see from classification, noted before, and from multiple  
fundamental researches, and surveys, the choice of target  
audience for health-conforming social projects cannot be  
limited by broad range of all persons of young, mature and  
senior age, because their needs for health preservation and  
health correction in all components are very different, as it  
presented in many classifications of age [8, 9]. Main goal of the  
article is to describe based on health components age  
classification and to present a project for one of selected  
groups. The purpose of the project is preserve and correct all  
active generations. Each of them is not monomeric in most of  
their characteristics, such as social personal experience, needs  
and motives in socially significant activity, ethnical and  
sociocultural features and by condition of physical, psychical  
and social health [1, 2, 3]. Thus social projects determined to  
solve any problem, important for population, should consider  
all these characteristics and several others, in order to have  
maximum public and personal significance. From this point of  
view projects directed on individual components of health show  
themselves in more preferable position. Among these projects  
are prophylactic medical examination, psychological  
rehabilitation and formulation of the principles of healthy  
lifestyle among young people [4, 5, 6]. The reason of it is that  
this part of adult population is very socially active. Mature and  
senior population is not such active. For example, people from  
Corresponding author: Elena V. Bystritskaya, Department of Physical Education Theoretical Foundations, Kozma Minin Nizhny  
Novgorod State Pedagogical University, Nizhny Novgorod, Russian Federation. E-mail:  
Journal of Environmental Treatment Techniques  
2020, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages: 804-808  
health components using recommendations given in authors’  
Methodological Framework  
In this work were used: analysis of current age  
periodization for mature people types, basis needed for  
classification of these types were detected, detection of needs  
for different categories of mature age people in healthy  
lifestyle, health correction, sociopsychological and social  
rehabilitation; age periodization based on detected needs,  
connected to health [13,14, 15]; surveys that confirm presence  
of problems among social project’s target audience;  
mathematical processing and graphic interpretation research  
data; social engineering supported with IT.  
Literature Review  
There are some well-known types of age periodization  
which are based on intellectual activity (J. Piaget [10]), leading  
activity, social personal status or involvement in educational  
and labour activity. Thus we can emphasize three groups of  
factors affecting on development of personality, which are  
traditionally form a basis of periodization.  
First group  regulatory factors, which show standard for  
physical and psychological development. These factors play  
leading role in periodization of children, teenagers and  
youngsters, but are blurry in crisis periods of life.  
Results and Discussion  
As a part of ascertaining research a survey of pre-retirement  
Second group historical Factors. They show influence of  
current period’s sociocultural terms on forming of physical  
state, psychological health, socially significant activity and  
status. Such factors are the most important for youngsters,  
when social functions of man, like professional and family  
ones, become leading factors of development.  
Third group unclassified factors, which are hard to  
regulate and analyzed from nature and social regularity and  
presented by individual conditions of life. These factor play  
significant role in objective state and subjective self-perception  
of health and wealth, the older the more. Most of the scientists  
give either extended characteristics of age groups, or extended  
periods for each stage of development compared to age groups  
for children.  
people (50 years and older) in wide range has been made. 170  
citizens of Nizhny Novgorod took part in the survey. They were  
chosen randomly. Respondents answered the questions  
willingly and sincerely shared their thoughts and experience on  
health. Answering the question about their opinion of what can  
be recognized as health components more than 70% pointed  
only physical health (absence of diseases, normal state of  
health, high activity and mobility, well-shaped physical  
conditions, good nutrition and full sleep). 18% added  
psychological health, efficiency, joy of movement and other  
components of psychic health. Less than 12 % pointed on one-  
two components of social health as meaningful for their lives:  
full communication and high social status, expanding field of  
interests, learning something new. Thus we can be ascertain  
that need in forming physical health prevails among mature  
people on need in forming harmonic ternary health [16, 17].  
Answering the question: “What in your opinion is the best  
way to overcome stress and stressful situations?” 65%  
respondents said that they think the best thing to do is to  
insulate themselves from outer world and to analyze their deeds  
alone. 20% marked the necessity of family, friends and  
colleagues’ support distracting from routine. 15% showed  
necessity of physical exercises, going to the gym, joint activity  
in inner circle. According to acquired data the effectiveness of  
socially approved sport and physical culture communicative  
activity rarely performed by mature people.  
Talking about social and psychological health state C.  
Buhler and N.A. Loginova [11] marked basic tendencies for  
age dynamics of human, which can be positive and negative for  
organism and personality development. Age group from 25 to  
5-50 years  phase of maturity, characterized by tendency to  
self-organization and controlling processes of own life.  
Moreover in this period of life tendency to generativity occurs,  
the willing to realize the opportunity to inflict on next  
generations, to give them valuable experience. Age group from  
5-50 to 65-70 years, «an aging man». Leading tendency is not  
expanding the activity, as it was in previous period, but  
curtailment of activity processes, finishing labour and  
professional career, period of active education of growing-ups  
and significant decreasing of new goals. Age period after 70  
years in this classification is called «an old man», some sources  
call it «the period of survival». Leading tendency in this period  
is decreasing of social connections both natural way and  
artificially in initiative order.  
Another, more optimistic approach, is given by American  
scientist С. Havinghurst [12], who put tasks of development as  
a basis for age division of elder people. Success in performing  
of these tasks in different periods of life brings happiness and  
success for future tasks. For mature age author marks following  
development tasks, which can be performed differently,  
depending on age periods:  
Answering the question about reasons of conflicts with  
other people, respondents judge differently, depending on their  
locus of control. No more than 38% of male respondents and  
0% of female respondents take responsibility for conflicts,  
saying that the reasons of conflicts are their irritability as result  
of dissatisfaction with their social status and family and social  
functions. People from this age group are tend to lay blame for  
these conflicts on younger generation: children, grandchildren,  
younger colleagues. Such was an answer of more than 61% of  
men and 58 % of women [9]. Many of them point out, that  
social status, high level of income and social demand are  
undeserved by their opponents. Thus it is obvious to reestablish  
social status of senior people or to give them new status and  
demand by social and personally meaningful activities.  
Essential condition of these activities is success.  
Also needs of senior people in social approval, interaction,  
psychological comfort and several other needs were viewed.  
Their realization is possible with reasonable self-regulation.  
Complex project “Towards nature pass the potage” can be  
useful in it.  
Building relationship with coevals  
Selection and studying main activity  
Making comfort conditions for family  
Improving the value system and ethical behavior system  
Accepting and improving own body  
Forming emotional comfort and emotional autonomy  
Age periodization, presented by authors, includes idea of  
Social project presented by authors was realized among age  
group of pre-retirement and retirement. That is why the results  
in uncovering needs in sphere of ternary health are shown in  
details for these groups. Research of needs for other categories’  
results became basis and are shown in classification listed  
below. Based on revealed needs and health dynamics features  
health in bio-body, psycho-emotional and socio-personal plans  
as the main idea. Our research presents universal model for  
target audience selection for acting in projects in the field of  
health preservation, based on classification listed below.  
Journal of Environmental Treatment Techniques  
2020, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages: 804-808  
in different age groups of matures the age periodization was  
developed. For psychologists age is associated not with number  
of ages lived, but with development stage and features of  
psychological. Presented age gradation based on human goals  
and values, which are born on different development stages and  
meeting age needs.  
Table 1: Age periodization of mature population based on their needs in forming and correction of three components of health:  
physical, psychological and social health.  
Age group  
Needs in the field of  
physical health  
Needs in the field of  
psychological health  
Needs in the field of  
social health  
Age period  
Clear idea about later  
life, concern for future  
wealth, approval and  
support from different  
social groups in  
different spheres of  
activity: creative,  
professional, family  
Stress tolerance  
The most complete  
flourishing of social  
status and personal  
growth in different  
aspects of life with high workability, improving  
level of physical and  
psychological health  
Development of  
organism’s functional  
abilities, increasing  
establishing and  
reestablishing of new  
social connections,  
development of  
dormant skills and  
Initial maturity 30-39  
of immune system.  
Stabilization or  
changing of  
professional fields,  
determination of  
perspectives in further  
career goals.  
Stabilization of career,  
confirmation of status,  
stabilization of family  
relationships and the  
way of life.  
Preserving of current  
physical activity level,  
using of health  
preserving technologies by psychological  
in focus mode  
psychological health  
and it’s improvement  
0-49 years  
trainings and practices  
Transition of  
Reflexion of life  
accumulated life  
experience to younger  
generation, demand  
among inner circle of  
people, strong ties with  
family and friends.  
Gathering new social  
connections thanks to  
new creative  
experience. Completion  
of labor activity among  
most of the people  
Difficulties in reception  
of changing labor and  
social status, pursuit of  
increasing of activity  
and development  
Supporting of  
Transition from  
efficiency level,  
physical activity level,  
health control  
0-69 years  
professional activity to  
mentorship. Changing  
family role from active  
member of the family  
to senior member.  
ability sphere.  
communication with  
younger generation,  
reestablishing social  
status and gaining new  
one in case of non-  
Correction of physical  
health, following the  
years and translation of way of physical  
Satisfaction from past  
professional activity  
and negative feeling  
from its ending.  
Comprehension of past  
0 years and older  
human values.  
activity, that was  
followed before.  
Judging need from presented periodization, several  
as inappropriate for their age and they would be criticized by  
different social groups.  
projects, targeted on changing physical, emotional and social  
health, have been created for people from two age groups: pre-  
retirement and retirement. The main target of this exact project  
is negative moments of aging compensation. These moments  
are expressed in some fears:  
Fear of poverty. It lies in lack of understanding the fact  
that in the modern world social status has no direct relationship  
with material status. For example, healthy lifestyle is low cost  
in many positions, and in terms of modern education politics it  
can also save enough money. This fear can be easily overcome  
with help of social projects in the field of health preserving with  
IT elements.  
Fear of ailment. It has two parts: personal and social. In  
personal part a man is afraid that his chronical diseases will  
worsen and that prevent him from performing his social  
functions in full straight with positive result. In social part this  
fear realize itself as fear for public condemnation of certain  
actions or inactions towards his health  
Fear of old age. It is not directly connected to a specific  
age group, it can manifest among people in younger categories.  
They can, for example, afraid of genetic diseases or age-related  
diseases in earlier period. Also this fear manifests in anxiety of  
esthetical withering of the body, which can be overcome  
through esthetic surgery, beauty treatment and esthetical forms  
of physical training. This fear appears as disorder between  
attitude and world view among mature and young generation,  
when the power of authority, established before, becomes  
Fear of death. It is implemented trough three parts. The  
first one is a fear of incomplete performance of social functions  
and absence of successor of these functions. Secondly, fear of  
death is viewed as fear of obscurity and unpreparedness to this  
transition. A man is tortured by doubts if he did everything for  
this transition to be as positive as possible. Thirdly, this fear is  
realized as possible burden of others with own ailment.  
Fear of criticism. Despite the noble and well respected  
age, these people are afraid that their actions can be recognized  
Presented project allows to fulfill the needs, shown in, chart  
№ 1, and overcome fears listed above, among pre-retirement  
and retirement age groups. All these fears in total means that  
the person loses his leading functions in labor, family, art  
Journal of Environmental Treatment Techniques  
2020, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages: 804-808  
studios and sport sections, where he established his position  
before, and becomes secondary. A large number of projects,  
related to people form these age categories, are oriented on  
development of executive functions: Norway walking courses  
psychical and social health of matures. Section «Useful  
information» presents verified and qualitative data on healthy  
nutrition, healthy lifestyle rules, sport disciplines beneficial to  
health, advice on choice of personal coach and other useful  
information. Section «Training program» includes well-tested  
set of exercises, matched to age features, diseases and injuries  
in order to support health of all body, to increase muscle tone  
and for total emotional state. Section «Live with taste» is about  
proper nutrition, selection of courses for the different diseases,  
physical activity, changing undesirable food on healthy and  
tasty nutrition [28, 29]. Thus, thanks to this informational  
support, on one hand the interest of users, which is already  
existed, is satisfied, on the other hand new needs are formed:  
needs in new ways of activity, desirable sports, biomechanical  
basis of movement, using routine movement in daily life,  
communication with people, who also have interest in such  
topics and so on.  
(role of trainee), art studios (role of pupil), continuing  
education courses of healthy lifestyle (role of executor or tutor).  
Thus there are virtually no projects, where the role of leader or  
manager of their own life, inner circle life or their reference  
group, is assigned to people of pre-retirement and retirement  
age. At this point the project called as «Health as reasonable  
egoism», presented by authors, is significant [18, 19].  
This project includes several ideas. First one is acquiring  
new sense and purpose of life by people of pre-retirement and  
retirement age independently from co-workers or family. This  
idea is being realized in project section «scribing». Its goals are:  
. Detailed understanding the basic functions and features of  
won organism; 2. Easy remembering and using basic principles  
of healthy lifestyle; 3. Easy mastering basic physical exercises.  
The goal of this section is inspiring of interest to healthy  
lifestyle in total through trainings using scribing techniques for  
the most effective learning by participants. Each training is  
accompanied by scribe (picture contains all information,  
viewed during classes). In the end of training digital copy of  
this scribe. The participant has scribes on all topics of course  
by the end of the course. This will help to recall each topic fast  
if it is necessary [20, 21, 22].  
Second idea is to uncover creative abilities or talents among  
selected age groups, which were previously undetected. This  
stage must be preceded by monitoring for talents, abilities and  
addictions among target audience. Next they are offered a  
marathon of master-classes. Attending these are obligatory for  
members of focus groups. It should be encourage by premium  
scores. Sum of the scores is individual rating. According to this  
rating participants are getting prizes from sponsors [23, 24].  
Master-classes can be: mini art school, art object studio,  
flamenco studio, salsa studio, aqua aerobics, sports and outdoor  
games, effective communication trainings etc. Aside from  
sponsored presents, participants get experience for realizations  
of their abilities and information about where and how they can  
realize them in regular mode.  
Based on presented research the following conclusions are  
Classification of mature population on the merits of needs  
in preservation and perfection of ternary health (physical,  
psychical and social) is made  
Presented classification has become a basis for totally new  
design of health-preserving technologies and health-  
forming projects for target audience development  
approach. This is made according to needs in health  
recovery and preservation.  
Social project «health as reasonable egoism» is presented.  
It notes the needs of specified target audience in  
reestablishing their leading social roles and functions  
through perfection of Physical, psychical and social health.  
This project is recognized as successful and effective.  
Next researches’ perspectives in this area are to make  
significant the way in selection of activity methods based on  
needs of mature population in perfection of health components  
in different directions.  
Third idea has conditional name «To the nature pass the  
vegetable garden». It shows the possibility for self-realization  
and getting joy of life and movement, and also potential of  
communication with nature without kitchen-garden activity,  
which is constant and tiresome duty for most participants of the  
program. For this there is a tourist rally presented for  
participants. They can take part in it either with their families  
or by their own. Fitness-festivals, master-classes, sport and  
outdoor games, artistic contests are included. One of the key  
moments is the rope contest. Its goal is to rally the members of  
the family and to develop closer relationships. All contests are  
based on teamwork, participants have to analyze the situation  
and take a unanimous decision. Thus as the project outcome  
participants form teamwork experience [25, 26]. Level of  
responsibility in achieving common goal is increasing too  
because of necessity to take risky decisions. It raises the level  
of self-esteem, forms team spirit and creating unity. At the same  
time senior members restore their management function, the  
power of sage in family and self-development activity [27].  
Forth idea is in project support with help of information  
portal «3 youth». The authors saw this name deciphers as  
This article is useful for pre-retirement and retirement age  
people. Technologies and projects, mentioned in article, help  
them to become included in health-preserving environment  
safely. After reviewing the age needs, subjects are able to  
analyze their state of ternary health and, with the help of  
educational information portal «3 Yough», to use health  
preserving technologies in their routine life. This article can be  
useful for educational and social organizations operating in  
ternary health recovery and preservation for persons in different  
age periods. Aslo it can be useful for target audience in order to  
take part in «Health: Reloaded» social project.  
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