Journal of Environmental Treatment Techniques  
2020, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages: 739-743  
J. Environ. Treat. Tech.  
ISSN: 2309-1185  
Journal web link:  
Use of Yoga Elements in the Training of Martial  
Nikolay B. Vorobyov , Rasim A. Samedov , Irina Y. Burkhanova , Denis I. Voronin ,  
Anastasia V. Stafeeva , Svetlana S. Ivanova , Marina S. Krasnova  
Department of Physical Education Theoretical Foundations, Kozma Minin Nizhny Novgorod State Pedagogical University, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia  
Nizhny Novgorod Regional Sports and Patriotic Public Organization "Shield and Sword", Nizhny Novgorod, Russia  
Department of Physical Education, Nizhny Novgorod State Technical University, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia  
Received: 18/12/2019  
Accepted: 19/03/2020  
Published: 20/02/2020  
The relevance of the topic presented because now an important condition for improving the effectiveness of educational and training  
process and competitive activities in all sports, including martial arts, is the development and implementation of technologies to optimize  
these processes. The use of yoga elements allows to increase the efficiency of the process of preparing athletes for competitions, helps  
to form the mood for a fight, allows an athlete to form the skills of self-control. The aim of this research is to theoretically and practically  
justify the possibility and expediency of using elements of yoga in the training process of martial arts. The article deals with the possibility  
of applying elements of yoga in the process of technical, tactical, physical and psychological training of athletes specializing in martial  
arts. The materials may be used to improve the quality of educational and training process and the effectiveness of competitive activities  
in martial arts.  
Keywords: Elements of yoga, Eastern martial arts, Training process, Competitive activities  
means, as a methodological basis of modern practical  
psychology and psychotherapy [8].  
According to the authors [1, 2, 3, 4], yoga is one of the most  
common areas of fitness, which is popular not only in Russia,  
but all over the world. The analysis of the dynamics of yoga  
development, starting from ancient times and ending with  
modernity, allows to assert that the main factors of its  
development are: the interest of the society by the peculiarities  
of functioning at different stages - the lack of sports direction  
The analysis of the procedural side of yoga practice allows  
to distinguish several levels of yoga influence on a person:  
physical, energetic, emotional and conscious. At the level of the  
physical body flexibility is developed, muscles and ligaments  
are strengthened, and joint mobility is increased. Yoga classes  
have healing effect on the spine and posture. At the energy level  
there is a release of energy and recovery of strength. On the  
emotional level regular yoga practice leads to positive  
perception of the world, gradually leaving anxiety and  
emotional tension, which creates the basis for harmonious  
relations with people. And finally, on the conscious level the  
most valuable thing that yoga gives an expanded state of  
consciousness [9]. According to E.A. Pozdeeva [10]:  
(type of leisure), professionalization, which implies both the  
criterion of social status and receiving material remuneration.  
At this stage yoga is a popular type of Eastern gymnastics,  
leisure. Schools, yoga studios are formed, a system of  
competitions is formed, organizational bases at the  
international and national levels, which leads to the expansion  
of the geography of this direction of oriental gymnastics [5].  
Yoga is an excellent alternative to traditional sports. People are  
not always able to get to specialized places for sports training.  
Yoga classes do not require well-equipped rooms and can be  
held in any quiet and secluded place, such as your home. That's  
why most people like this way of strengthening their physical  
health and spirit [6]. During research the it was found that  
people who practice yoga are less susceptible to heart and joint  
diseases; very rarely overweight; more stress-resistant; in good  
physical shape; do not exhibit aggression towards others; have  
good memory and coordination of movements [7].  
«...elements of khataha yoga have long been used in sports  
training and in physical fitness technologies. ...the tasks that are  
solved in fitness yoga classes are health improvement,  
correction and correction of posture, muscle strengthening,  
balance in the work of large and small muscle groups,  
simultaneous development of joint mobility and muscle  
strength, harmonization of mental processes, etc.».  
When training high level martial arts athletes to fight, as a  
rule, coaches pay close attention to shaping the mood for  
victory. In this case, a small amount of time is devoted to the  
formation of effective mechanisms of self-management of the  
athlete's own condition, which negatively affects the  
effectiveness of competitive activities. At the current stage of  
martial arts development, an important condition for improving  
the efficiency of the training process and competitive activities  
Today's yoga as a spiritual practice is interesting primarily  
from the psychological and health-saving point of view. More  
and more often yoga is seen as a practice aimed at cognition of  
oneself, transition to new levels of consciousness, cognition of  
the outside world, including as an excellent psychotherapeutic  
Corresponding author: Nikolay B. Vorobyov, Department of Physical Education Theoretical Foundations, Kozma Minin Nizhny  
Novgorod State Pedagogical University, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia. E-mail:  
Journal of Environmental Treatment Techniques  
2020, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages: 739-743  
is the development and introduction of new technologies to  
improve the level of athletes' self-government. Self-  
management is a manifestation of the will of a sportsman - a  
conscious tension of mental and physical forces of a person,  
aimed at optimizing his own condition. For example, when the  
tactics of combat change, an athlete must quickly adjust without  
entering stress, to act and think clearly, and to control himself  
differently using yoga practice in training. Yoga-practitioners  
are private practices that complement the sports training  
process and affect the recovery of an athlete after training and  
especially after competitive activities.  
Yoga exercises can have a direct and indirect impact on  
various aspects of athletes' training. The direct effect on the  
physical, psychological and theoretical training of athletes is an  
important component in the recovery process. An indirect  
effect of an exercise has on the technical and tactical training  
There are a significant number of examples that confirm the  
effectiveness of applying yoga to enhance the body's  
capabilities. Athletes are not going to do cardiac arrest or do  
something similar that yoga has demonstrated, but the fact that  
it is possible to do so is of great scientific importance. If all  
athletes know that the body reacts to consciously caused  
signals, that heart rate, blood flow and other processes can be  
subject to willpower, each athlete will be able to influence his  
mental and physical training and learn to control emotions.  
Studying yoga shows that the main task of classes is to form  
an absolute balance and conscious control of feelings. In order  
to exercise control over their body and mind, the athlete needs  
to understand the mechanisms of this process through self-  
monitoring and self-learning. He needs to learn to feel his body,  
understand how the mind and perception work.  
Often the characterization of specific exercises that have a  
curative effect is reduced to a simple description of the external,  
visual form of the posture [25]. Let us suppose that it will be  
difficult for a beginner (and any ordinary person) to perform  
the posture correctly according to this general description.  
Specific motor activity of yoga, enclosed in a long static  
retention of an unusual body position, has little in common with  
European motor modes [26]. That's why precise methodical  
instructions for doing the exercise are necessary. Moreover, the  
same position may have different recommendations depending  
on the initial state of the musculoskeletal system of the  
practitioner [27,28].  
[11]. Nowadays specialists offer modules of yogic practice  
which help to solve problems of general and special kinds of  
preparation of athletes in the most effective way, and  
considerably increase functional condition before responsible  
competitions, promoting achievement of the highest results and  
keeping high level of health of athletes! [12]. The use of yoga  
practices in martial arts groups to improve the level of athletes'  
self-governance has recently gained more importance. This is  
as with the use of yoga practice athletes have an increased level  
of sportsmanship, a harmonious personality and condition of  
the athlete. Yoga, as one of the most ancient systems of self-  
knowledge and self-government, includes a huge number of  
means and methods of psychophysical improvement of man,  
which are presented in several directions of its development.  
Nowadays, more and more martial arts coaches include  
elements of yoga in their training, after which they notice a  
significant improvement in the performance of athletes in  
training, an increase in the level of self-control and self-  
knowledge of athletes, an improvement in the physical and  
functional preparedness of athletes.  
Results and Discussion  
This article deals with the application of yoga - practices in  
martial arts groups to improve the level of athletes' self-  
governance. The work was carried out based on the sports  
organization "Shield and Sword", which has been effectively  
operating for 7 sports seasons. In this club martial arts coach,  
in our case we will take karate kyokushinkai classes, include  
basic training and application of yoga - practice. Also  
kyokushinkai karate athletes attend kundalini yoga classes  
separately. The karate training in the sport club "Shield and  
Sword" includes supportive yogic exercises, compensatory  
yogic exercises and regenerative yogic exercises. Yoga-  
supporting exercises are an effective means of reducing  
monotony in athletes. Such exercises help to balance the  
training process, restoring energy, physical and mental balance.  
In karate training kyokushinkai is used as a supporting  
exercise for yogis: floor stand on shoulders (modified  
sarvangasana), shoulder stand (sarvangasana), locust  
There is a significant amount of research confirming the  
effectiveness of yoga in increasing the body's capacity [10, 13  
16]. Athletes are not going to engage in cardiac arrest or do  
something like that which was demonstrated by yoga, but the  
fact that it is possible is of great scientific importance. If all  
athletes know that the body reacts to consciously caused  
signals, that heart rate, blood flow and other processes can be  
subject to willpower, every athlete will be able to influence his  
mental and physical preparation and learn to control emotions.  
According to A. Kogler, [17]: «...the use of yoga practice for a  
group of martial arts athletes is very varied in sports training.  
They can be conventionally divided into a number of tasks  
aimed at many aspects of the training process: general  
development exercises; compensatory exercises; regenerating  
exercises; a complex of asanas, vinyas and krii to reduce or  
increase body activity, to warm up and concentrate; - relaxation  
exercises; ideomotor and psycho-training exercises».  
salabhasana), forward tilt sitting (paschimothanasana), plough  
halasana), head stand (sirshasana), scales (mayuerasana),  
triangle, triangle with turns, "head to knees" posture, "straight  
body" posture (padasana), lunge, hull lifting, half stand on the  
head, "bridge" posture.  
Compensation yoga exercises aim to correct and  
compensate for the developed muscle imbalance through  
regular compensatory exercises. With the help of these  
exercises the one-sided effect of training is corrected, the body  
develops harmoniously, individual physical systems are  
improved, and together with them the athlete's control over his  
Methodological Framework  
The methodological basis for this research is: (a) support  
mechanisms of athletes of high qualification [18, 19, 20]; (b)  
technology of formation of meth competencies of future  
specialists in the field of physical culture [21, 22, 23, 24]; and  
body. In karate trainings kyokushinkai is used as  
compensatory yogic exercise: modified forward tilt standing,  
semi-plow, modified cobra (modified bhujangasana), twisting  
position, modified "onion", stretching groin (modified  
bhadrasana), half lotus (modified padmasana), shoulder  
stretching (modified homo khomukhasana), rest position  
(modified vajrasana).  
c) ways to improve the efficiency of the training process and  
the competitive activity of martial arts [16].  
In order to methodically correctly train martial arts athletes  
with elements of yoga, it is necessary to know the mechanism  
of action of these exercises on the body of athletes and to  
foresee the effects of their use, so it is very important to choose  
the right set of exercises for different sports that improve the  
level of self-governance.  
Regenerative yoga exercises are necessary for fast and deep  
muscle regeneration, to restore strength and prevent injuries.  
Journal of Environmental Treatment Techniques  
2020, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages: 739-743  
Table 1: Influence of yoga elements on the preparedness indices of martial art  
Impact of asana  
Corrects and compensates for the development of muscle imbalance Applies to improve leg performance -  
direct kicks, sidekicks, head kicks.  
Corrects and compensates for the development of muscle imbalance Applies to increase the endurance of the  
athlete, strengthens the lumbar corset. Helps to stretch and strengthen the back surface of the body effectively  
pulled calves, hamstrings, hips, back muscles and spine, has a general relaxation on the athlete's body.  
Aimed at relieving tension in the legs and lumbar region of the back.  
Aimed at strengthening the lower back, opening the chest.  
Aimed at strengthening the oblique and transverse abdominal muscles, the facet joints are mobilized, the pear-  
Parivritta Parsva shaped muscle is stretched and strengthened, the back muscles are pulled out. Stimulated organs of the  
digestive, excretory, hormonal and genitourinary systems, relieves pain in the lower back, corrects pinching  
and stretching in the pelvis and lower back.  
Helps an athlete completely relax the corset.  
Thanks to the intensive extension of the frontal surface of the body opens the chest, stretches out the  
collarbone area and strengthens the quadriceps. The heart and all organs of the chest cavity are massaged, and  
the lungs are enlarged in volume and their work is improved. Direct, twisting strokes are improved.  
The pose stretches and opens the thoracic and shoulder parts, makes the hips, groin area and abdomen longer,  
legs are stronger, increases the flow of blood to the pelvic organs, soothes the nerves, trains the vestibular  
apparatus, improves the athlete's stand.  
Contributes to the development of hip mobility, soft extension of the back surface of the legs and buttocks,  
strengthening them. The side muscles of the body, chest and neck, spine is actively pulled out and worked out.  
The body is prepared to perform more difficult exercises.  
The correct posture is formed, a slouch is eliminated, and the back relief is kept, an overvoltage from muscle  
fibres is removed and microcirculation improves, exchange processes are improved. Leg muscles are  
stretched, groin.  
The correct posture is formed, a slouch is eliminated, and the back relief is kept, an overvoltage from muscle  
fibres is removed and microcirculation improves, exchange processes are improved.  
Opens the chest, makes the muscles and ligaments of the ankles, thighs and shoulder girdle more elastic,  
stretches the triceps and the broadest muscles of the back.  
Helps to stretch and strengthen the back surface of the body. effectively stretches the calves, hamstrings, hips,  
back muscles and spine, has a general relaxation on the athlete's body.  
Aimed at strengthening the nervous system, eliminating over excitation.  
Paschimottanasa Corrects and compensates for the development of muscle imbalance.  
Applied to improve leg performance - direct kicks, sidekicks, head kicks.  
Promotes deep concentration of the athlete, increases thought processes, eliminates stressful processes in the  
body. It prevents the aging process, activates the epiphysis, which is responsible for the main function of the  
athlete's body, enhances the functions of analysis and control of the athlete.  
It leads to an increase in the production of pleasure hormones, which gradually reduces the level of tension and  
anxiety, promotes a gentle stretching of the spine and the development of its flexibility and mobility, helps  
increase the volume of the chest, elongates and strengthens the neck, makes the arms and back muscles  
stronger. It is a fundamental exercise to stabilize an athlete's physical condition. Corrects and compensates for  
the development of muscle imbalance.  
It is used to control and relax the entire muscle corset.  
Aimed at reinforcing the wrist, hands and abdominal walls.  
Aimed at relaxing the whole body, reducing muscle tension, beneficial effect on self-control.  
Parivrtta Janu  
Helps to improve hip mobility, increase stretch of inguinal and posterior hip muscles. Applied to improve leg  
performance. Hits - direct leg blows, side blows, head blows.  
Affects the leg muscles, toning them, there is a good stretching of the feet, caviar, hamstrings and groin. The  
spine stretches out and becomes more flexible, the chest develops, the lung system improves, there is a  
purification of the blood system.  
Necessary for pulling the Posterior Thigh Muscle, Caviar Muscle and Lower Back Muscle. Helps to open the  
pelvis, improves digestion and normalizes the excretory system, soothes the nervous system and helps to  
restore strength.  
Janu Sirsasana  
Strengthens hands, arms, shoulders, back and neck muscles. Improves blood circulation in the upper body. The  
focal point is the hands. Necessary to improve basic strokes.  
Helps relax back and neck muscles, reducing tension and headaches.  
It strengthens the wrists, reducing the risk of sprains and injuries, strengthens nutrition for the spinal column  
and the tissues surrounding it. Strengthens and stretches back muscles, eliminates slouch.  
Necessary to correct the athlete's post, the correct setting of blows.  
Journal of Environmental Treatment Techniques  
2020, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages: 739-743  
Regeneration has many positive aspects for a karate athlete.  
Among the most important are these:  
the fight, intelligence, the end of the fight and at the same time  
properly distributes its load, controls its fear, aggression. It  
should also be noted that an athlete's self-governance increases  
with his or her experience.  
Postload recovery;  
Rapid elimination of fatigue symptoms;  
Preventing injuries to permanently loaded muscle groups;  
Balancing the work of the higher nervous system.  
These advantages make it possible to significantly improve  
the efficiency of the training process. They accelerate the  
development of correct sports techniques, movement skills,  
protect the body of the athlete. Psychological yoga exercises  
revive passive attention, which leads to better self-control.  
Yoga exercises include the attention of an athlete, just as they  
do in meditation. Asanas improve cerebral blood circulation  
and stimulate neuroplasticity of brain structures, which creates  
the conditions for increased mental ability develop the skill to  
learn something new. All parts of the brain are constantly  
working. This means that at any moment millions of neurons  
are in an excited state. The brain needs a huge amount of  
energy. The delivery of that energy to the brain depends on  
effective blood supply. Asanas significantly improve the blood  
supply to the brain and significantly increase its efficiency.  
On the basis of the analysis of activity of sportsmen of  
sports club "Shield and Sword" during intensive trainings and  
during competitions it was revealed that these exercises allow  
to optimize mental and physical condition of sportsmen, to  
increase the level of their emotional stability, to strengthen self-  
regulation of sportsmen, to maintain the mental state of peace  
in alternation with movement that positively affects all aspects  
of educational and training process and competitive activity of  
sportsmen. The following elements of yoga used in the training  
process are described and their impact on the various indicators  
of technical-tactical, physical and psychological fitness of  
martial art is described (Table 1).  
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