Journal of Environmental Treatment Techniques  
2020, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages: 884-893  
J. Environ. Treat. Tech.  
ISSN: 2309-1185  
Journal web link:  
A Review of COVID-19: The Main Ways of  
Transmission and some Prevention Solutions,  
Clinical Symptoms, more Vulnerable Human  
Groups, Risk Factors, Diagnosis, and Treatment  
Nasrin Beheshtkhoo , Mohammad Hassan Alipour , Reza Nemati , Reza Baghbani ,  
Farahnaz Behzad , Mostafa Shafiee , Mohammad Amin Jadidi Kouhbanani *, Ali Jangjou *,  
Mohsen Mehrabi *  
1Department of Medical Nanotechnology, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences,  
Tehran, Iran  
Social Security Organization,Shahid Beheshti Hospital,Shiraz,Iran  
Department of Medical Emergencies, School of Allied Medical Sciences, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr, Iran  
Research Institute for Fundamental Sciences (RIFS), University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran  
Department of Medical Nanotechnology, School of Advanced Medical Sciences and Technologies, Shiraz University of Medical  
Sciences, Shiraz, Iran  
Department of Emergency Medicine, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran  
Department of Medical Nanotechnology, School of Medicine, Shahroud University of Medical Sciences, Shahroud, Iran  
Received: 06/03/2020  
Accepted: 19/05/2020  
Published: 20/09/2020  
COVID-19 is a virus that causes acute respiratory syndrome. Although it is less deadly than other members of its family, i.e. SARS  
and MERS, its extremely rapid transmission rate has become a widespread concern today. Airborne droplets, environmental surfaces,  
nasal mucosa, urine and fecal samples are among the routes for the transmission of this virus. Both temperature and humidity factors  
affect the viability of the virus and its mortality rate. Increasing the ambient temperature makes the virus unstable, while lowering the  
temperature contributes to its stability. Due to the fact that the main route for the transmission of this virus is the particles containing the  
virus, observing the social distance of at least one meter, using masks as well as air purification systems can reduce the risk of virus  
transmission to some extent. This contagious virus has made life difficult for everyone in the community, especially pregnant women,  
children and the elderly. This viral infection can be diagnosed in many ways, including laboratory tests, molecular tests, the chest X-ray  
and CT scan. It is worth noting that chest CT scan is more sensitive than other methods and is used as the first line of diagnosis. Despite  
numerous efforts, no definitive cure has yet been found and isolation of those involved is recognized as first-line treatment. The  
treatments so far can be divided into three categories: general treatments, pharmacological treatments, and diet. General treatments  
involve isolation, mask use, oxygen therapy, room ventilation and more. Because of the rapid spread and the many challenges that this  
viral infection has created, scientists have used many of the drugs that were previously used to treat the influenza, malaria, AIDS, etc.,  
some of which have been used to treat the viral infection. It should be noted that some of these drugs were very effective on some  
people's bodies. Some of these drugs were even used for pregnant mothers. A proper diet and the use of certain vitamins such as iron,  
zinc, vitamins A, B, C, E can also be effective in preventing and treating this viral infection. Many efforts to develop a vaccine against  
this virus infection began about two weeks after the outbreak and the attempts to reach this goal continues.  
Keywords: COVID-19, SARS, MERS, Diagnosis, Treatment  
targeted by the coronavirus are the lungs and the human  
respiratory system (Fig.1), followed by complications such as  
acute respiratory syndrome (SARS‐CoV‐2). In terms of genetic  
sequencing, it is shown that COVID-19 has an 80% similarity  
to SARS-COV and an 50% similarity to MERS-COV, from  
The coronavirus belongs to the crown-like family of  
viruses, named after the appearance of the virus under an  
electron microscope as the viruses have crown-like spikes  
protruding from their surfaces. The main organs of the body  
Corresponding authors: (a) Mohammad Amin Jadidi Kouhbanani, Department of Medical Nanotechnology, School of