Journal of Environmental Treatment Techniques
2020, Volume 8 Issue 3, Pages: 961-966
nitrate, nitrite, and phosphate). Therefore, a reliable water quality
evaluation is important as the scientific proof for the water
resource management to control the pollution and develop better
management and planning [12, 35].
5 stations were at the selected tributaries of the river. There were
different types of land uses along the river. The site description
and the coordinate of the sampling points are summarized in
The anthropogenic activities also cause the entrance of large
amount of heavy metals into water system, which has been
widespread and stated in many previous studies . The heavy
metal pollution, in comparison to other pollutions, is more
alarming due to the non-biodegradable characteristic of heavy
metal with bio-accumulative behaviour in the system [14, 34].
The excessive heavy metal forms through various processes and
pathways, which include natural and anthropogenic sources .
Heavy metals are mainly released from anthropogenic sources,
especially industrial activities, and mining [13, 16, 17, 34].
Therefore, the physicochemical parameter and heavy metals
concentrations are measured to evaluate the water quality.
Many previous studies stated that inappropriate land use
induces the deterioration of water quality . Water quality
evaluation is important to have effective management control and
improve the water quality [3,6]. The Johor River is the main river
in Johor State, Malaysia, which is the main freshwater resource in
Johor State and for the neighbouring country, Singapore .
Based on previously conducted studies, the water quality index of
the Johor River is ranged from 47 to 52 and fall into Class IV,
which is only suitable for irrigation purposes. There are various
anthropogenic activities, including industrial and sand mining
activities, along the Johor River, and the end of the estuarine is
close to Singapore. Thus, the water quality of the Johor River is
of regional concerning interest to control the water pollution and
to secure the water supply and quality control to be safe for both
countries [19, 40].
The main purpose of this study was to quantify the physical-
chemical water quality characteristics and heavy metals
concentrations at 11 sampling sites (Figure 1) along the Johor
River and to determine the current quality of the river system.
Therefore, the objectives of this study are: 1) To compare the
water quality status and concentration of heavy metals in the
Johor River based on Class II outlined in the National Water
Quality Standards for Malaysia (NWQSM), and 2) To study the
relationship between the water quality and heavy metals
concentration in the Johor River in relation to major land uses
within the catchment area. The selection of the Class II outline in
NWQSM for comparison purposes was because there are villages
confined within the system, such as kampong Berangan where the
river is used for recreational purposes.
Figure 1: Study area and the water sampling stations of the Johor River
Table 1: The coordinates and the descriptions of the sampling
Coordinate of the Sampling Station
of the Latitude
Kota Tinggi Town, located in
1° 38' 4.4874"N 103° 58' 19.308"E the upstream, mainly consisting
of industrial areas
Johor 1° 41'
Sand mining, Oil Palm
1° 43' 35.832"N 103° 53' 58.5954"E
Sand mining, Oil Palm
103° 55' 32.0874"E
103° 56' 55.968"E Oil Palm Plantation
Pulau Dendang, Oil Palm
103° 55' 53.8674"EPlantation, Surrounded with
mangrove and nipah trees
Johor 1° 39'
Johor 1° 35'
1° 35' 3.9114"N 103° 59' 14.1714"EOil Palm Plantation
103° 57' 17.5314"EDownstream, Village
1° 37' 15.132"N 103° 58' 17.4"E
Oil Palm Plantation
Village, Urban area, Oil palm
1° 37' 6.24"N 103° 59' 1.032"E
Sand mining, Small restaurants
1° 36' 58.32"N 103° 57' 27.108"E close to the riverbank, Oil Palm
Johor 1° 37'
103° 58' 2.1"E
Village, Oil Palm Plantation
Materials and Methods
.1 Study Area
Surface water samples were collected in pre-cleaned bottles
The study area selected for the present research is the Johor
from the eleven sampling stations. Three physicochemical
properties of water (temperature, salinity, and pH) were
determined on site by in-situ water quality checker (Horiba U-50
multi-parameter checker). Water samples for dissolved inorganic
nutrient concentrations (nitrate, nitrite, phosphate, and ammonia)
were syringe-filtered (0.2 µm pore-size Acrodisc filters) into
polypropylene centrifuge tubes, frozen in a liquid nitrogen dry
shipper in the field, and stored at -20 ºC until analysis on a SEAL
AA3 segmented-flow auto-analyser system using SEAL methods
for seawater analysis. Concentrations for all nutrients were
measured in µmol/L and converted into mg/L. For total suspended
solid (TSS) measurements, 1 L of surface river water was
River basin located in Johor, Peninsular Malaysia (Figure 1). The
catchment area is around 2636 km and the mainstream length is
around 122.7 km . The tributaries of the Johor River include
the Seluyut River, Sengi River, Redan River, Temon River, and
Tiram River. The mean discharge rate of the Johor River is 37.5
m /s. The annual mean rainfall intensity in this region is about
360 mm, with mean temperature is around 27 °C.
.2 Sampling Collection and Analysis
As mentioned earlier, 11 water sampling stations were
selected along the Johor River (Figure 1). 6 out of 11 sampling
stations were at the mainstream of the Johor River and the other