Journal of Environmental Treatment Techniques  
2020, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages: 1168-1172  
J. Environ. Treat. Tech.  
ISSN: 2309-1185  
Journal web link:  
Bacteriological Study of Municipal Water  
Discharged in Al-Kufa River, Najaf, Iraq  
Ahmed O.M.AL-Dahmoshi and Hazim Aziz Naji Alhadrawi*  
Department of Ecology, Faculty of Science, University of Kufa, Najaf, Iraq  
Received: 09/05/2020  
Accepted: 17/07/2020  
Published: 20/09/2020  
Aim: The present study was aimed to investigate the bacteriological aspects for monitoring of water quality of Al-Kufa River, Al-  
Najaf, Iraq. Method: Water samples were collected from three sites in frequency of four time a month (For each site the samples were  
collected from about 100 meter before and after the site of municipal water discharge in the month of November, 2018 and April, 2019.  
The bacteriological assessment of samples involves, total bacterial count. Results and discussion: Highest number of bacteria was  
recorded in Site no 3, during month of April while the lowest number was recorded in Site no 1, during month of November. Study  
also included isolation and identification of bacteria by using the selective culture media. An isolated bacteria includes E.coli,  
K.pneumoniae, P.aeruginosa, V. cholera, S.typhi, S.aureus, E faecalis and investigation of antibiotics on bacterial isolates was  
investigated. Investigation shows resistance for E. coli and K. pneumonia with antibiotic ceftazidime while P. aeruginosa showed high  
resistance for Cefotaxime and Gentamycin. V. cholera and S.typhi shows significantly high resistance for Beta-lactam antibiotic i.e.  
Amoxicillin/Clavulanic acid and Cefotaxime and Ceftazidime, while S. aureus and E. faecalis shows high resistance for  
Clarethromycin and for tetracycline respectively. According to the results of present study we conclude that important difference  
observed among the sites in terms of physical ,chemical and bacteriological determinants according to site and the period of sample  
collection ,The study isolates showed different high antibiotic resistance patterns and the findings reflect the importance of water as  
a reservoir for the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes in the natural aquatic the identification of this kind of  
contamination is necessary for appropriate management practices to improve sustainable water resources.  
Keywords: Municipal Water Discharged, Al-Kufa River, Resistance  
2 Study area  
Near the Al-Kiffil Bridge in the north of Kufa city, Iraq,  
Water quality is determined by assessing three classes of  
attributes: biological, chemical, and physical [1]. There are  
standards of water quality set for each of these three classes of  
attributes. Some attributes are considered of primary  
importance to the quality of drinking water while others are of  
secondary importance [2]. Biological attributes of a waterway  
can be important indicators of water quality and refer to the  
number and types of organisms that inhabit a waterway. When  
assessing water quality, it is also important to look at the  
quality of organisms that live in a waterway [2]. The water  
quality monitoring has become an important topic in stream  
and river system that’s affected by careless disposal of  
pollutants, where domestic and industrial effluent discharges  
consider the major sources of aquatic pollution [3]. It is crucial  
to improve our understanding of Al-Kufa habitat due to its  
importance for community livelihoods, so the current status of  
pollution in Al-Kufa River is an important factor to  
considered, especially due to increased human and industrial  
activities in Al-Kufa region [4].  
the Euphrates subdivided into two parts: Al-Abassia and Al-  
Kufa River, the last one extends from Al- Kiffil city via Al-  
Najaf province to Al- qadisia province, the total length of Kufa  
River is about 38 km, and its capacity reach to 552 m3. The  
water level in this river undergoes large fluctuations, the  
highest level occurs during the high discharge seasons (end of  
March month and of early April), the lowest water level in the  
summer. A lot of villages and farms (animal, crop, and  
vegetation farms) are found along the River; there are  
domestic, municipal wastewater and agriculture drainage  
discharged to the River; in addition to the industrial wastes that  
which come from: the industrial region in Al-Najaf city, the  
leather industry, and the cement factory. All of above have  
affecting the water quality, distribution and diversity of  
microorganisms. To investigation this study, 3 Sites were  
chosen as clear in Table (1).  
*Correspondence author: Hazim Aziz Naji Alhadrawi, Assistant Professor, Department of Ecology, Faculty of Science, University  
of Kufa, Najaf, Iraq. Email: