Journal of Environmental Treatment Techniques  
2020, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages: 1168-1175  
J. Environ. Treat. Tech.  
ISSN: 2309-1185  
Journal web link: http://www.jett.dormaj.com  
Development of an Analytical Method for  
Determination of Carboplatin and Oxaliplatin in  
Resource Water, Prediction and Environmental  
Risk Assessment  
M. Alimohammadi 1,2, M. Asadi-Ghalhari , Y. Ghafuri *  
3
3
1
Department of Environmental Health Engineering , School of Public Health , Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran  
2
Center for Water Quality Research, Institute for Environmental Research (IER), Tehran University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran  
3
Research Center for Environmental Pollutants, Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, Iran  
Received: 21/05/2020  
Accepted: 16/07/2020  
Published: 20/09/2020  
Abstract  
Carboplatin and Oxaliplatin as cytotoxic drugs have developed in recent years as a group of antineoplastic agents, have the ability  
to kill or stop the growth of certain living cells and are used in chemotherapy of cancer. That their function is through the disruption of  
cell division. This study aimed to determine carboplatin and Oxaliplatin in wastewater samples by the characterization of the LC-MS/MS  
method. The method was carried out on ODS C18 (250 mm, 3.5 µm) in which the mobile phase was A = Water +0.1% formic acid, B=  
methanol +0.1% formic acid, (A / B) = 20:80(V/V), flow rate: 0.3 mL/min, and injection volumes: 5 µL. The method was validated for  
LOD, LOQ, accuracy and precision. Results of environmental risk assessment showed that RQ (risk quotient) for Carboplatin and  
Oxaliplatin were 0.51 and 0.038 respectively that indicates all of platinum compounds had low environmental exposure risk . In this  
regard, studies should be carried out to evaluate the toxicity and genotoxicity effects of the metabolites of cytotoxic platinum compounds  
and strategies to removal of these compounds.  
Keywords: Carboplatin, Oxaliplatin, Risk, Assessment  
Introduction1  
especially for platinum ion, in environmental samples, and  
1
high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV  
detection, to measure the complexity of the platinum drug has  
applied. Of course, the above methods are about the relatively  
high levels of platinum in environmental samples. HPLC  
coupled with triple quadrupole (QqQ) mass spectrometry (MS)  
is a commonly used method with high effectiveness for  
measurement of pharmaceutical residues in various  
environmental samples (7, 8, and 9). Currently, in all oncology  
wards of hospitals in Qom Province in the central part of Iran,  
platinum complexes containing carboplatin and oxaliplatin are  
widely incorporated. This study aimed to develope of an  
analytical Method for determination of Carboplatin and  
Oxaliplatin in resource water, prediction and environmental  
risk assessment.  
Very low levels of drug combinations in water and  
wastewater environments around the world have been widely  
considered (1). Cytotoxic drugs have developed in recent years  
as a group of antineoplastic agents, have the ability to kill or  
stop the growth of certain living cells and are used in  
chemotherapy of cancer. That their function is through the  
disruption of cell division (2). Most of the anticancer drugs are  
classified as mutations or teratogenic for humans. According to  
guidelines and regulations for the safe handling of anticancer  
drugs, many studies have shown that the staff and the medical  
staff are exposed to these drug (3). Carboplatin and oxaliplatin  
are complexes of Pt that utilize anticancer drug and are  
effective in the treatment of testicular and ovarian cancer.  
Anticancer drugs are also very effective in the treatment of  
many malignant tumors, lymphomas, and so on (4). Anticancer  
Platinum complex drugs have important antitumor activity  
caused particularly by the Cross-linking of DNA and formation  
of DNA adducts, subsequently triggering apoptosis and leading  
to cell death. Platinum complex drugs are excreted by patients  
and released to the urban wastewater system. Health impacts  
are considerable with the incomplete removal of  
pharmaceutical compounds, especially the platinum complex  
2 Materials and Methods  
2.1 Chemicals and reagents  
Analytical standards of platinum complexes carboplatin  
(Car-pt, Cas 41575-94-4) and oxaliplatin (Oxa-pt, Cas 61825-  
94-3) were provided by Sigma-Aldrich with the highest  
percentage of purity (>99%). All solvents were of HPLC grade,  
and all chemicals were of analytical reagent grade. Formic acid  
(98