Journal of Environmental Treatment Techniques  
2020, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages: 1196-1199  
J. Environ. Treat. Tech.  
ISSN: 2309-1185  
Journal web link: http://www.jett.dormaj.com  
https://doi.org/10.47277/JETT/8(3)1199  
Limitation Legal Certainty of Long-Term Flat unit  
Ownership Related to Flat Building Ownership  
Sukiman Sugita*, Abdul Gani Abdullah, Gunawan Djajaputra  
Faculty of Law, Tarumanagara, Jakarta, Indonesia  
Received: 24/05/2020  
Accepted: 29/07/2020  
Published: 20/09/2020  
Abstract  
Humans in carrying out their lives must meet certain requirements of life which consists of several levels based on their interests,  
including the most basic primary needs met first by Humans, Secondary Needs that arise and support primary needs and tertiary needs  
that can be fullfiled after primary and secondary needs. Basic needs in this case will describing human needs for shelter or a place to  
stay as their needs to living. The need for flats is inevitable to meet the need for shelter for the people of Indonesia, especially related  
to the dense population in urban areas. However, the existing regulations cannot provide legal certainty due to material and formal  
requirements that need to be provided in providing legal certainty have not been regulated so that it can be implemented optimally.  
This research was conducted using a legal approach that prioritizes several legal theories to analyze and test the laws and regulations  
related to the limitations of ownership of flats that are timed to be associated with building ownership so that ownership is expected to  
provide recommendations and suggestions for developing policies that provide significant benefits in reforming the legal provisions  
and the usefulness, justice and legal certainty in Indonesia.  
Keywords: Flat building, Flat unit, Legal certainty, Ownership  
goal. As a country with population estimate of 265 million  
1
Introduction1  
people, it is reasonable if housing and settlements are one of  
the basic needs that are influential in shaping the personality  
of the Indonesian people. Housing and Settlements can not  
only be seen as a means of necessity of Life, but more than  
that it is a process of settling Humans in creating living  
arrangements for the community and himself in expressing  
identity (4). There are two roles of government in housing  
construction anywhere in the World, namely the government  
as the housing developer itself or at least facilitates housing  
development and as a controller for housing development (5).  
High population growth is in line with the level of demand for  
housing that is getting higher, but the high demand is not  
directly proportional to the availability of land for housing,  
especially in densely populated urban areas. This has caused  
many housing developers to start innovating by making  
vertical-shaped dwellings. Vertical dwellings are commonly  
known as Apartment and Flats (6).  
In granting a clear legal status for the implementation of  
flats, the government has formed a legal instrument that  
regulates the implementation of flats. This is stated in the  
Flats Act. The formation of legal instruments becomes  
important to provide legal protection for people who wish to  
have residential housing in the form of flats. Law Number 20  
Year 2011 concerning Flats (UURUSUN) creates a firm legal  
basis relating to the implementation of flats based on the  
principles of welfare, justice and equity, benefits. The policy  
direction for the construction of flats in Indonesia as stated in  
UURUSUN includes three main elements, namely: (1) Spatial  
Planning and urban development, using land optimally and  
realizing settlement in population density. (2) The concept of  
legal development, by creating new material rights, that is, flat  
flats that can be owned individually by joint ownership of  
objects, parts and land and creating a new legal entity that is  
the association of residents who with their articles of  
association and household budgets can act out and in the name  
Land is an object in meeting the needs of human which  
has a very important meaning. Land is a gift from God  
almighty as a natural resource which is controlled by the state  
to meet the needs of human life for shelter, farming, trade,  
industry, education, to the construction of facilities and other  
infrastructure and become a final resting place for human (1).  
The problems that occur related to land become evidence of  
the need for state interference and the law that governs and  
provides legal certainty. Roscou Pound provides a legal basis  
for the systematic requirements of the law as follows (2). In a  
civilized society everyone can hope that others will not attack  
them. In a civilized society everyone can expect that he can  
own for the purposeful use of what they find and use for his  
own benefit, what they create, with their own work and what  
they earn, in the social and economic order that that time held  
power. In a civilized society everyone can expect that the  
people with whom they deal with public relations in society  
will act in good faith. It can be expected that they will fulfill  
the promises they have been able to fulfill or the hopes they  
have created because of their actions.  
2
Methodology (Literature Review)  
The state as a community entity has an outline of its  
purpose and function, the state aims to ensure equality for its  
people, the State functions to resolve disputes, conflicts and  
meeting the needs of the Common life. The state is an  
instrument of shared interest in achieving happiness (3). To  
achieve the common goal, human being needs to have a state.  
Because, that country will has an organization of power rather  
than Human. Society is a tool that will be used to achieve that  
Corresponding author: Sukiman Sugita, Faculty of Law,  
Tarumanagara,  
alexander.ssugita@yahoo.com  
Jakarta,  
Indonesia.  
E-mail:  
1
196  
Journal of Environmental Treatment Techniques  
2020, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages: 1196-1199  
of the apartment unit owner, has the authority to realize order  
and peace in the apartment life. (3) Concept of Economic  
Development and business activities with the possibility of  
construction credit and mortgages or fiduciary loading of land  
along with buildings that will still be built with the existence  
of dynamic settlement problem in the community, especially  
in crowded cities, there are legal consequences, especially  
regarding ownership and ownership rights (7). As stated in  
agraria basic law number 5 of 1960 article 20, this article  
explains that the right of ownership is the strongest right and  
fulfillment that can be owned by people on the land, the  
granting of these characteristics means that the right is  
absolute and cannot be contested. Law No. 20 of 2011  
on increasing the efficiency of land use, space and capacity of  
the city, improving the quality of life of middle to lower  
income people and preventing the growth of urban slums,  
increasing the efficiency of infrastructure, urban facilities and  
utilities, increasing community productivity and urban  
competitiveness, increasing community productivity and city  
competitiveness, increasing meeting housing needs for the  
middle and lower classes and increasing employment and  
economic growth (9), (10).  
Flats in urban areas are based on the concept of  
sustainable development, which places people at the center of  
development. In its implementation, use the principles of good  
governance and good corporate governance. The basic  
principle of the construction of flats refers to the principles of  
the construction of flats; the construction of flats is a  
government responsibility that can be carried out by everyone  
by getting help from the government and also by non-profit  
organizations and business entities. Payment of commercial  
flats can be carried out by anyone, where the offender  
provides public flats with at least 20% of the total floor area  
of the commercial flats built. Obligations to pay for these  
public flats can be made outside the location of commercial  
flats while still within the district / the same city as the  
commercial flat related.  
concerning Flats regulates property rights in article  
4
paragraph 1. Property rights over housing units a separate  
structure which is separated from the Joint right in the Joint  
portion, Common objects and shared land. To ensure legal  
certainty and ownership and investment of the Republic of  
Indonesia government guarantees these rights in law number  
2
5 of 2007 concerning investment and to provide certainty  
and guarantee of comfort, equity of justice and consumer  
safety and legal certainty for the public over ownership of  
apartment units. The government regulates it in law No. 8 of  
1
999 concerning consumer protection. With the existence of  
these legal products, it is expected to provide legal certainty,  
usefulness and protection for the community towards  
ownership of flats in Indonesia.  
Construction of flats is regulated by government  
regulation No. 4 of 1988 concerning flats, the law on flats  
provides regulations on types of flats that were not previously  
regulated, namely public flats, special flats, state flats and  
commercial flats. This is not yet regulated in the regulations  
of apartment houses, so the regulations on apartment houses  
need to be adjusted. This is important considering the  
characteristics of each apartment and the restrictions on their  
use and use are regulated differently. The role of the  
government in the construction of flats is regulated in law  
number 20 of 2011 concerning flats which includes the role  
and policy of how to implement the construction and  
regulation of ownership of flats, this has been regulated in the  
provisions of government regulation No. 24 of 1997  
concerning land registration and Law number 38 of 2008  
concerning Buildings. As the author described above, the role  
of the government must be to provide legal certainty for the  
community and legal certainty of good investment so that  
with clear certainty, community trust in the certainty of  
ownership of flats and other matters guaranteeing ownership  
rights. This is stated in law number 25 of 2007 concerning  
investment. In article 22 of Law Number 25 Year 2007  
regarding the period of ownership of land as a basis for  
investment provisions that should be maintained in order to  
provide certainty for the period of extension of ownership that  
can provide a sense of security and certainty over building  
ownership, with changes through judicial review, making the  
public and investors have reduced trust in the government.  
How the task of government is should be able to provide a  
sense of comfort, fairness and expediency for the benefit of  
the wider community. Thus it is not easy for a legal product to  
change. The role of the government must be to provide  
certainty and good and strong legality so that the community  
can feel protected, even though there is now law number 8 of  
1999 regarding consumer protection that is still lacking by the  
public, because too many legal products cannot provide  
protection in a manner certainly for the community in general,  
especially the principle of certainty of ownership of flats, this  
must be immediately addressed and repaired because the need  
for flats increases in urban areas in Indonesia.  
1
) Government's role in the current implementation of  
Flats: The government is all state equipment or state  
institutions that function as a means to achieve the goals of  
the state, while what the government does is in the context of  
carrying out the tasks of the state so that the government is  
often referred to as state representation. Basically the role of  
the government in the procurement of housing can be divided  
into two:  
(a) Policy makers Rational housing procurement strategies  
and programs (8). Limitation of ownership of flats that are  
timed in association with ownership of this building, the  
government should formulate policies both legally and  
practically so as to provide benefits and justice for housing  
development, especially flats in force in Indonesia. The  
government should be able to meet the needs and  
development dynamics of development by immediately  
making a legal effort to reform and harmonize the provisions  
of the basic agraria laws, the Investment Act and the Law on  
Flats, by following the acceleration of development of  
residential houses, especially flats.  
(b) Implementation of affordable housing procurement in  
relation to flats for low-income communities. The government  
acts as the provider or as an enabler, that is, when the  
government acts as the producer of the house or provider, the  
government is responsible and the decision maker making it  
easier for the public and investors to obtain certainty. The task  
of the government is to create a conducive climate and  
provide a variety of community assistance to be able to  
participate in the procurement of housing and the role of the  
government must provide facilities for apartment developers  
so as to create a good investment climate and provide legal  
certainty over the ownership of flats. With government  
intervention from the beginning of the licensing, ownership,  
development and control processes and mechanisms in  
accordance with statutory provisions and legal certainty, so  
that legal problems do not occur in the future. Flats  
Development aims to meet the needs of the community,  
especially in urban areas that are livable and affordable for  
middle to lower income people in urban areas with dense  
population. The construction of these flats will have an impact  
(2) Legal certainty of limits on ownership of flats with  
time duration related to building ownership. Based on the  
terms of ownership of flats with a time frame associated with  
1
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Journal of Environmental Treatment Techniques  
2020, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages: 1196-1199  
ownership of buildings in Indonesia, at least based on five  
laws and regulations, namely: The 1945 Constitution, in  
particular Article 33 Paragraph 3, Basic Agrarian Law  
Number 5 of 1960, Investment Act No. 25 of 2007, Flats Act  
No. 20 of 2011. Regulation of the Minister of Public Works  
and Public Housing No. 23 of 2018 regarding associate of  
flats owner. According to Sudikno Mertokusumo, legal  
certainty is a guarantee that the law can be carried out  
properly. Certainly legal certainty has become an inseparable  
part. This is prioritized for written legal norms, because  
certainty itself is essentially the main goal of the law, this  
legal certainty is the regularity of the people and is closely  
related to certainty itself because the essence of order will  
cause a person to live in harmony certainty in carrying out the  
activities required in carrying out the activities of community  
life itself (11). Philosophical and Juridical Basis for the  
Conception of the National Land Law, Justice, Humanity and  
Sovereignty is a reflection of the spirit of article 33 paragraph  
harmonious rule of law in order to create legal certainty and in  
order to provide benefits. With clear regulations, of course,  
development activities will be more easily implemented and  
applied to reduce the risk of losses experienced by the owners  
of flats and the wider community and developers. Fourth,  
positive law should not be easily changed, in the opinion of  
the author as outlined on the previous page, it is fitting that  
the provisions of article 22 of the investment law related to  
the extension of secondary rights remain and are not  
invalidated by the constitutional court, because basically they  
do not violate or contradict a The law (higher statutory  
regulations) in this case the 1945 Constitution, which is  
strengthened by these rules is the same item and does not  
reduce the essence of the principle of the length of time  
stipulated in the LoGA and its implementing regulations (3).  
The ideal arrangement related to ownership limits for a long-  
term apartment is linked to building ownership. According to  
the authors, the certainty of the limit of ownership of flats  
which is connected for a long time with building ownership  
does not provide certainty due to various errors, complexities  
and unclear provisions related to formal procedures in the  
maintenance of ownership rights, for this reason it is  
necessary to reform and harmonize the provisions of the  
statutory regulations. Regulations related to the limitation of  
ownership of a long term apartment connected to the  
ownership of the building must be carried out both in the  
juridical order and the practical implementation. The basis for  
granting land titles for the construction of flats to the actors of  
flats or developer is closely related to the legal provisions  
relating to land titles related to investment activities. In the  
investment law is widely open to investors both domestic and  
foreign investment, it is necessary to ensure licensing and  
acquisition of land rights such as how much land can be  
obtained and the term of the land provided by the legislation  
to the perpetrators of home construction stacking, available  
land area for investment including HGB, HGU and usage  
rights. With the provisions of the apartment laws and  
investment laws, it should be able to provide a certain period  
of time to ensure how much time can be obtained for  
investments and owners of flats, because the provisions of  
ownership rights are clearly stipulated in article 20 of the Act  
Law No. 5/1960 and Law number 20 of 2011 concerning flats.  
And guaranteed in the provisions of law No. 25 of 2007  
concerning investment, which regulates clearly and  
unequivocally regarding the period of ownership both for  
apartment units attached to land rights. In this provision  
clearly stipulates the time period for the acquisition of land  
titles as stipulated in article 22 of law number 25 of 2011. But  
this provision is canceled by the constitutional court, this  
makes it difficult and there is no legal certainty, the law must  
have effectiveness the law is a process that aims at the law  
being effective; HGB can be granted in the amount of 80  
years and can be granted and extended in advance at the same  
time for 50 years and can be renewed for 30 years. With the  
existence of these regulations there is clearly certainty over  
the ownership of land and buildings. This must be  
immediately returned and harmonized between one legal  
product and another legal product. So that it becomes more  
efficient from the existence of ease and legal certainty for the  
community, especially regarding ownership of flats. In the  
provisions of article 4 letter (b) of the investment law number  
25 of 2007 explaining to guarantee legal certainty, business  
certainty, and business security for investment since the  
licensing process until the end of capital offering activities in  
accordance with statutory provisions. Clearly, there are  
provisions and limitations in the investment law number 25 of  
2007 providing protection against the capital offer. According  
3
of the 1945 Constitution which is the basis of the UUPA  
itself gives and places a right in its place based on a principle  
that all people have the same position in before the law, where  
the state is involved in the regulation of ownership provisions.  
The concept and principle of Horizontal separation in land,  
Horizontal Separation states that buildings and plants are not  
part of the land, consequently the land boundary does not  
automatically include the ownership of the buildings and  
plants on it. The application of the principle of horizontal  
separation is a consequence of the inclusion of elements of  
customary law in national land law, this makes a rule of  
ownership ambiguous, the principle of horizontal separation  
in land law is a legal product in Indonesia that does not reflect  
the legal function to provide legal certainty to achieve justice  
and efficiency. The role of the government must be explicitly  
able to regulate the rights of ownership, especially for time-  
bound flats associated with building ownership. That the  
issuance of government regulation number 40 of 1996 and  
UUPM which specifically provides a tool in the form of  
extension of secondary rights from individual rights or  
individual rights is a good breakthrough and should be  
appreciated for the obligations or facilities for extension of  
secondary rights. This is regulated in article 22 of the Capital  
Market Law regarding the period of acquisition of rights at the  
same time the Capital Market Law provides 80 years of  
building use rights by being granted and extended for 50 years  
and renewable for 30 years. This is very good for the certainty  
and legality of ownership of flats that can provide certainty  
over the unit period obtained by the owner of the flats, but this  
cannot be done because of other views from various parties  
and conduct a judicial review of the law. This makes  
uncertainty over laws and regulations that can change which  
leading to uncertain regulations. Gustav Radbruch stated 4  
basic things related to the meaning of legal certainty that can  
be associated with the Limitation of ownership of flats that  
have a period of time associated with building ownership.  
First, that the law is positive, meaning that the positive law is  
legislation which means that the positive law discussed in this  
journal is the agrarian main law (UUPA), the investment law,  
and the law of the flats that for the three laws these laws must  
work in harmony to provide a useful legal certainty. Secondly,  
that the law is based on facts which mean that it is based on  
reality in people's lives, the fact that there have been cases  
where the case was a reminder of the formation of the law.  
Especially regarding matters related to ownership due to the  
absence of legal certainty that can be a reference to legal  
products. Third, that the facts must be formulated clearly in  
purpose to avoid errors in meaning. Besides being easy to  
implement; the fact that it is important to formulate a  
1
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Journal of Environmental Treatment Techniques  
2020, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages: 1196-1199  
to the author, Article 22 of the investment law No. 25/2007  
was re-enacted, providing legal certainty and time efficiency  
in the extension of ownership rights and certainty of  
ownership of buildings, especially in flats in Indonesia. With  
these provisions can provide certainty and comfort for both  
developers and investors to ensure the period of ownership of  
rights and buildings (12), (13).  
6. Bellini OE. Adaptive Exoskeleton Systems: Remodelage for  
Social Housing on Piazzale Visconti (BG). In: Della Torre S.,  
Cattaneo S., Lenzi C., Zanelli A. (eds) Regeneration of the Built  
Environment from a Circular Economy Perspective. Research for  
Development. Springer, Cham. 2020.  
7
.
Maxim B & Tshenolo M . Recognising the family house: a  
problem of urban custom in South Africa, South African Journal  
on  
0.1080/02587203.2019.1632737.  
Indonesian Law Number 5. Agraria Law. 1960.  
Urip S. Pendaftaran dan Peralihan Ha katas Tanah. Kencana  
Prenadamedia Group, Solo. Pp.7a.  
Human  
Rights.  
2019;35(2):147-168.  
DOI:  
1
8
9
.
.
3
Conclusion  
The need for seriousness from the government to  
immediately fix the existing legal products so as to facilitate  
understanding for the public on a legal product that regulates  
the interests of the community so that the legal product can  
provide legal certainty, effectiveness and provide a sense of  
security and comfort for the property business sector and the  
owner of the apartment units.  
Thus a legal product does not overlap with the many  
derivatives of a law, as is the case today with ownership of  
land titles and apartment buildings. The current legal products  
are the Agrarian Law No. 5 of 1960, the Law on Flats, Land  
Registration Regulation No. 24 of 1997 and the Investment  
Law and Law No. 8 of 1999 concerning Consumer protection.  
Unable to provide a sense of security, comfort and legal  
1
0. Samiee KS. Context comfort feature improvement regarding  
urban blocks designing based on maximal utilization of passive  
solar energy (Case study: Latman Kan residential site), Journal of  
Art and Architecture Studies. 2015;4(2):35-44.  
11. Sudikno M. Penemuan Hukum. Liberty. Yogyakarta. 2009.  
1
2. Soerjono S. Faktor Faktor yang mempengaruhi Penegakan  
Hukum. Penerbit PT.Raja Grafindo Persada. Jakarta. 2007.  
1
3. Indonesian Law Number 25. Concerning Investment. Jakarta.  
2
007.  
certainty, this can provide  
a bad perception for the  
development of flats in Indonesia. With the always changing  
conditions for implementing regulations that must be followed  
in the licensing process and other matters relating to  
ownership of flats. The study expects the government to  
immediately accommodate the needs and development of the  
business world and the dynamics of society that continues to  
move on the process of advancing times, especially reforming  
the basic agrarian law product no. 5 of 1960 which has been  
sufficiently long to be adapted to current conditions, so that it  
can be more certain in the future provides certainty over the  
ownership of special flats in Indonesia  
Ethical issue  
Authors are aware of, and comply with, best practice in  
publication ethics specifically with regard to authorship  
(avoidance of guest authorship), dual submission,  
manipulation of figures, competing interests and compliance  
with policies on research ethics. Authors adhere to publication  
requirements that submitted work is original and has not been  
published elsewhere in any language.  
Competing interests  
The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest that  
would prejudice the impartiality of this scientific work.  
Authors’ contribution  
All authors of this study have a complete contribution for  
data collection, data analyses and manuscript writing.  
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