Journal of Environmental Treatment Techniques  
2020, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages: 999-1004  
J. Environ. Treat. Tech.  
ISSN: 2309-1185  
Journal web link:  
Model of Innovative Wayang Wong for Millenial  
Generation to Meet 4.0 Industrial Revolution  
Era in Bali  
Ni Made Ruastiti *,I Komang Sudirga *, I Gede Yudarta *  
Performing Arts, Institut Seni Indonesia Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia  
Received: 15/01/2020  
Accepted: 18/03/2020  
Published: 20/09/2020  
This study aims to develop an innovative Wayang Wong Performing Arts model for millennial to meet the 4.0 industrial revolution  
in Bali. This research was inspired by the imbalance between assumptions and reality in the field. Supposedly, Wayang Wong, as one of  
the local wisdom in the form of performing arts, is in demand in the community. However, the reality is different. This research was  
conducted by integrating qualitative and quantitative methods through several stages of development. The research model design was  
applied by means of participatory observation, and in-depth interviews targeting millennials (teenagers and children) in Bali. The  
conclusion of the research is a model of Innovative Wayang Wong that was developed by a new perspective regarding the millennial  
generation need with a new creation and new meanings. The Innovative Wayang Wong performing arts is expected to have an impact  
on the sustainability of this performance art, which will indirectly strengthen the children’s national character  
Keyword: Model, Innovative Wayang Wong, Millenial Generation, 4.0 Industrial Revolutions  
in the development and transformation of traditional industries.  
Economic capital can also be realized through the character  
building of the community concerned. The fourth industrial  
revolution, and hence the 4.0, will come about via the Internet  
of Things and the Internet of services becoming integrated with  
the manufacturing environment (3). Through the character  
building, the community empowerment will realize the  
economic capital that can flow within the social structure;  
therefore, it can be used as a basis for moving the economy  
towards the usefulness of the community's life. Fourth  
Industrial Revolution is unprecedented and possesses a whole  
range of peculiarities, as compared to previous industrial  
revolutions (4). Only if humanity appropriates fixed digital  
capital, turns it and sublets it into a means for the end of  
humanist socialism and socialist humanism. Creating an  
innovative interactive orientation program creates a balance of  
human and technology (5). It is the same case as the use of the  
Wayang Wong performing art which has recently begun to be  
marginalized from the social and economic capital of the  
people in the era of the 4.0 industrial revolution in Bali.  
Generational differences have been overlooked in the  
development of new approaches to learning and clinical  
In the era of the 4.0 industrial revolution, there are many  
shifts and changes. Revolution has the meaning of a quick  
change towards progress or establishment. Human labor is  
replaced by automation and digitalization of machines. A lot of  
human work opportunities eventually disappear. Within this  
discussion, the interaction between humans and machine is of  
particular relevance for Industries 4.0. Industry 4.0 adds to a  
better understanding of the relationship between manufacturing  
and politics as well as technological change in manufacturing  
1). This phenomenon also occurs in the realm of the Balinese  
performing arts. An example is the performances of the  
performing arts in the context of tourism at several hotels in  
Bali. Many Balinese performing arts should be displayed in an  
intact fashion, completed with castrated gamelan. What is  
meant is that when the Balinese dance is performed for tourists,  
the performance is frequently displayed using cassettes or CDs  
only. This phenomenon certainly shifts the role played by and  
employment opportunities of humans as the musicians  
accompanying the dances performed. In other words, in this  
context there has been a shift in the role played by humans;  
instead, technology is used to reduce the production cost in  
order to obtain greater profits. Technology advances continue  
to grow very rapidly and gave birth to the digital society (2).  
The industrial revolution that prioritizes the value of the  
community’s economic growth through community  
empowerment will be able to build harmony and synergic  
cooperation to develop the economy of the community  
concerned. Industry 4.0 is considered to have an important role  
In the context of the information technology revolution and  
the mix of generations (6). This research was inspired by the  
imbalance between assumption and reality in the field.  
Supposedly, Wayang Wong, as one of the local wisdom, is in  
demand in the community. However, the reality is different.  
Although this performance art is local wisdom that contains  
many great cultural values, the reality shows that this  
Corresponding authors: (a) Ni Made Ruastiti, Performing Arts, Institut Seni Indonesia Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia. E-mail: (b) I Komang Sudirga, Performing Arts, Institut Seni Indonesia Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia. E-mail: (c) I Gede Yudarta, Performing Arts, Institut Seni Indonesia Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia. E-mail:  
Journal of Environmental Treatment Techniques  
2020, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages: 999-1004  
performance art is only sought after by the elderly group of  
people. Local wisdom can contribute to specialization and style  
specifications in the form of social practice (7). Local wisdom  
can influence the existence of cultural meanings, social  
meanings and economic meanings (8,9). Difficulties in finding  
the next generation and the lack of the young generation’s  
interest in pursuing this performance cause it to be increasingly  
marginalized and endangered in Bali. In fact, Bali is an island  
of paradise. It is a tourist destination that relies on cultural arts  
as tourist attractions. Therefore, conservation efforts need to be  
made through a strategic approach so that the Wayang Wong is  
sought after by the wider community; especially the younger  
generation as the nation’s successor.  
Wayang Wong is a traditional Balinese performing art  
presented in the form of a drama. Wayang Wong comes from  
the words Wayang and Wong. Wayang can be interpreted as  
icons or figures initially displayed using leather. Wayang is  
made from carved cow leather. This form of theater has a  
specific story (10). The wayang form is adapted to the character  
presented in the performance; i.e. the character of Ramayana.  
Wayang Kulit performance is accompanied by the gamelan  
gender Wayang. Over time, a new performing art inspired by  
the Wayang Kulit emerges, which is called Wayang Wong  
performance because the character and musical  
accompaniment of the performance are the same as those in the  
Wayang Kulit performance; the difference is only that the  
Wayang Wong is played by humans.  
The Wayang Wong performance featuring the character  
Ramayana is presented in the form of a drama accompanied by  
gamelan battle. Generally, the dancers of the Wayang Wong  
performance are adults or elder people only. Each player  
dances wearing a mask while having dialogues in Kawi  
Language which is translated by the characters referred to as  
panakawan named Sangut, Delem, Merdah and Tualen. The  
difficulty of the language material and the dialogue used in  
performing art has caused Wayang Wong with its noble values  
to keep being marginalized. The lack of interest of the  
community in becoming the performers causes this type of  
performance to be able to be performed by certain groups such  
as adults or elder people in the context of ceremonies. To keep  
Wayang Wong performance sustainable, the local people are  
made to oblige their citizens to perform this performing art in  
every ritual that they carry out in every six months or even once  
a year in their area. Yet, the audience just includes elder people.  
In Bali, the performing art of Wayang Wong is developing  
among others in North Bali including Tejakula Village and  
Anturan Village of Buleleng Regency. Meanwhile, in South  
Bali, it is developing among others in Tunjuk Village of  
Tabanan Regency, Tonja Village of Denpasar and Tanjung  
Benoa Village of Badung Regency. The model of the  
Innovative Wayang Wong performance will be developed  
throughout Bali by targeting the performing art studios in the  
area. The development of this performing art model is a  
strategic step to preserve the local cultural arts while  
strengthening the national character in this globalization era.  
The preservation of the local arts will be more effective if it  
empowers the community by involving young people in all  
aspects of activities directly related to the Wayang Wong  
performing art and the process of organizing the performance.  
In addition, the development of this art model of the innovative  
Wayang Wong, Bali, as a tourist destination, can empower the  
local communities and can develop all aspects of life. As a  
tourist destination, Bali is known for its cultural tourism. The  
selection of Wayang Wong art as a cultural manifestation is not  
spared because the performing arts containing these precious  
values have never been touched by the millennial (children and  
Millennials is a generation that is flexible and likes  
freedom, but not unlimited freedom (11). Millennial genes are  
known to be generation-saving compared to other generations.  
Millennial is known to require self-affirmation which among  
them is mostly granted or accommodated through the  
mediation of facilities and infrastructure from industry 4.0 (12).  
By presenting this performance art, the players and the  
audience or tourists will be able to grasp the meaning and  
philosophy of the characters universally performed. The youth  
believe that such content represents the truth and try to defend  
it as hard as possible (13).  
The composition of a particular shape design can provide a  
different response (14). The strategic position of Bali as a  
tourist destination opens opportunities for different  
appreciation and tourism development (15). One of the  
developments in tourism is to open opportunities for the  
millennial generations to conduct tourism in Wayang Wong Art  
synergizing different parties, namely, the community and the  
government. The application of synergistic governance is  
needed in the management of sustainable tourism. Synergic  
governance will enable the optimal process of the community  
empowerment as an effort to improve prosperity. That relations  
with local governments can have an impact on social relations  
and cultural sustainability. Development is a form of social  
change (16). Since this innovative Wayang Wong performing  
art is in the form of traditional art that has already existed, the  
local community does not necessarily make major changes.  
The local people also feel familiar with the Wayang Wong  
performing art because they have already had this type of  
performing art. In addition to active participation, the Wayang  
Wong performing art requires a public appreciation for its.  
However, the players (children and teenagers) need to be  
equipped with skills related to it so that they and the audience  
or tourists get entertained with it, get insight into and  
understand the values of life through the performance of this  
innovative Wayang Wong art. The values of local wisdom can  
be obtained through Wayang Wong about Indonesian cultures,  
such as the value of tough, patient, and nrimo ing pandum  
sincere to reach the dream (17). The most important thing is  
how children and teenagers, as players of the performance,  
enjoy this benevolent performance. Thus, the impact from the  
cultural side will be extended to the economic side that will  
generate profits in the area through the local art and cultural  
media. The application of the innovative Wayang Wong art  
model in the millennial generation (children and teenagers) is a  
strategic step to preserve the cultural arts and strengthen the  
national character in this globalization era. The problem is: how  
to apply the art model of the innovative Wayang Wong  
performing art to the current millennial generation? What form  
of the Innovative Wayang Wong performing art is suitably  
applied to these children? What are the implications of its  
performance model on them in this globalization era?  
Literature Review  
The Wayang Wong performance is now almost getting  
extinct because