Journal of Environmental Treatment Techniques  
2020, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages: 936-946  
J. Environ. Treat. Tech.  
ISSN: 2309-1185  
Journal web link: http://www.jett.dormaj.com  
Nano Bioremediation of Textile Dye Effluent  
using Magnetite Nanoparticles Encapsulated  
Alginate Beads  
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A. Lincy *, P. Jegathambal , Martin Mkandawire , Stephanie MacQuarrie  
1
Water Institute, Karunya Institute of Technology and Sciences, Coimbatore, India  
2
Department of Chemistry, Cape Breton University, Nova Scotia, Canada  
Received: 02/05/2020  
Accepted: 12/06/2020  
Published: 20/09/2020  
Abstract  
Due to increase in urbanization and industrialization, both water consumption and wastewater generation are high. It is a great  
challenge to treat and provide safe water to the society. The conventional treatment methods are energy and cost intensive. These  
limitations can be subsided by the application of nanotechnology that shows better efficiency in terms of treatment of wastewater.  
The use of nanoparticles increases the adsorption of dye and removal efficiency due to their smaller size and increased Surface to  
Volume (S/V) ratio. In this paper, magnetite nanoparticles were synthesized using Reverse Co-Precipitation method and their textile  
dye removal efficiency using adsorption was studied in treatment of blue dye water. The synthesized magnetite nanoparticles were  
qualitatively and quantitively characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Field Emission Scanning Electron  
Microscopy (FESEM), UV-Vis Spectroscopy and Cyclic Voltammetry (CV). The observed continuous absorption spectral band  
by FTIR and UV-Vis spectrum confirmed the formation of magnetite nanoparticles. The magnetite nanoparticles observed in  
FESEM exhibited spherical shape with size of 60-100nm. The specific capacitance of the magnetics nanoparticles observed through  
CV was 1828.5mA/g. The dye adsorption potential of magnetite nanoparticles was studied by conducting experiments on the  
encapsulated alginate magnetic nanoparticles beads by varying operational parameters like contact time, pH, adsorbent dosage and  
dye concentration. From the results, 82.4% removal of azo blue dye was observed with the initial dye concentration of 25 ppm.  
Finally, the operational parameters were optimized based on maximum removal of blue dye.  
Keywords: Nanotechnology, Magnetite, Beads, Adsorption, Blue dye  
Introduction1  
the penetration of sunlight and oxygen which is more  
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essential for the survival of more aquatic forms. Textile  
industries utilize substantial volume of water and chemicals  
for wet-processing of textiles. There are nearly 8,000  
chemical products associated with the dyeing process. So,  
viable techno economical solutions are needed for treating  
such types of wastewater. The eco-friendly and  
economically adoptable wastewater remediation using  
nanotechnology is one of the current areas of focus. Nano  
bioremediation is a new emerging technique which employs  
nanoparticles to clean up the environment and it removes the  
pollutants and dyes efficiently. Numerous researches across  
the globe are ongoing in green nanotechnology related to the  
synthesis of nanoparticles using microorganisms. The  
alternatives for conventional method of synthesis have been  
modified with various biological entities and are being  
Water is the basic necessity on earth for the human and  
providing the clean water to society is of prime importance  
for their better well-being. Water is highly contaminated due  
to pollution, high population, amplification of industry and  
textile effluents which lead to life time undermining  
sicknesses[1]. The water consuming industries like paper  
and pulp manufacturing, plastics, dyeing of cloth and  
tanneries discharge a large amount of wastewater into the  
soil and aquatic ecosystem. Few dyes are toxic in nature and  
their presence in industrial effluents is of major  
environmental concern because they are usually very  
recalcitrant to microbial degradation. In some situations, the  
dye solution will undergo anaerobic degradation and it will  
form carcinogenic compounds that will end up in the food  
chain [16]. Moreover, highly dyed wastewaters will block  
Corresponding author: P. Jegathambal, Water Institute, Karunya Institute of Technology and Sciences, Coimbatore, India. E-  
mail: jegatha@karunya.edu.  
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