2020, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages: 1054-1059  
J. Environ. Treat. Tech.  
ISSN: 2309-1185  
Journal web link: http://www.jett.dormaj.com  
Removal of Fluoride Ions from Drinking Water by  
Activated Alumina and Activated Charcoal  
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Habiba Lebrahimi *, Mohammed Fekhaoui , Abdelkabir Bellaouchou .  
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Department of Zoology and Animal Ecology, Laboratory of Zoology, Scientific Institute, Mohamed V University, Avenue Ibn Battouta, Agdal,  
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0090, Rabat, Morocco  
Department of Toxicology, National Institute of Hygiene, 27, Avenue Ibn Batouta, 769 Agdal, Rabat, Morocco  
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences Rabat, Mohamed V University, 4 Avenue Ibn Battouta, 1014 Agdal, Rabat, Morocco  
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Abstract  
The pollution of drinking waters by ions fluorides caused by industrial and natural activities, causes major problems for human  
health, what imposes to think seriously of the treatment of these waters. Experiments are carried out in the laboratory to remove fluoride  
ions in water, based on the adsorption process by activated alumina and activated carbon with a change in different parameters  
influencing the retention rate such as pH, amount of adsorbent and contact time. Good defluoridation requires a contact time between  
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0 min and 60 min with a retention rate of 53.51% and 67% for activated alumina, 50.27% and 56.35% for activated carbon. The  
retention rate for 3g adsorbent is 56% for activated alumina and 18.91% for activated carbon, this value increases with increasing  
adsorbent quantity for acid pH. According to these experiments the retention rate of fluoride ions by activated alumina is higher than  
that of activated carbon, which makes activated alumina treatment the most responsive for the removal of fluoride ions in water. in this  
work they try to find an appropriate method to eliminate the excess of ions fluorides in underground water after a study made on these  
ions in waters of the region of Khouribga in Morocco as phosphaté region the presence of ions of which results points out fluoride with  
a broad broadcasting of the illness of fluorosis to the population. According to tries made in the laboratory one there found that alumina  
speeded up and activated charcoal is very efficient for this action.  
Keywords: Fluoride, Activated alumina, Activated carbon, Water treatment, Defluoridation, Adsorption  
is based on the adsorption technique on activated carbon and  
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Introduction1  
alumina, which are the most responsive, effective, very simple  
and do not require much maintenance. Both elements are the  
most used industrially because of their excellent  
decontamination properties against the majority of pollutants.  
Considerable efforts are made to ensure a better protection of  
the environment of water resources. Scientific research is  
increasingly oriented towards the selection of the most effective  
means of depollution. Several methods of treatment of water  
containing fluorine, mainly adsorption by activated alumina  
and activated carbon, have given their effectiveness in  
removing fluoride ions dissolved in water [7]. This process is  
well suited to the elimination of fluoride ions with a need to  
control the ions but the pH of the treated water need to be  
control. The adsorption capacity depends on the specific  
surface of the material, the nature of the adsorbent, and the  
contact time. For our study one there chosen the treatment by  
the adsorption by alumina speeded up and activated charcoal  
seen that their fastness and their effectiveness according to  
results found without forgotten availability of this two  
Fluoride (F-) contamination in groundwater has been  
recognized as one of the serious problems worldwide. Fluoride  
is classified as one of the contaminants of water for human  
consumption by the World Health Organization (WHO), in  
addition to arsenic and nitrate, which cause large-scale health  
problems [1]. The fluorine as most part of the chemical  
elements (iron, manganese ...) effects of which their excess in  
Drinking Water causes failure for water and environment [2].  
The quality of waters of drink is an obligation for everybody  
what obliges a strict treatment [3]. the classical techniques used  
for the treatment of waters of drinks are several categories  
among which in most cases the adsorption with activated  
charcoal, alumina speeded up and loam, the techniques of haste,  
physicochemical techniques (separation on membrane,  
oxidation  
/ discount) and other biological techniques  
(biosorption, phytoextraction) [4]. The pollutions of  
underground waters of the region of Khouribga are a strict  
problem, because it causes an endemic illness to the population,  
what makes think seriously of the treatment of waters intended  
for human consumption. Everything results acquired from the  
physicochemical analyses of underground water of the region  
of khouribga are has norm except the content of fluorine which  
was superior has norm in several wells of the region. [5].  
The removal of fluoride ions from groundwater is done by  
several techniques which differ from each other depending on  
the removal percentage (efficiency) and treatment cost.  
adsorbants in Morocco as developing country [8]. The  
objective of fluoride removal meant the treatment of  
contaminated water in order to bring down fluoride  
concentration to acceptable limits. The defluoridation  
techniques are generally classified into 2 classes, specifically  
membrane and surface assimilation techniques. No study was  
made in this sense in Morocco contrary has the ladder  
international or they find many people work on this problem,  
According to several studies [6], among these techniques, one  
Corresponding author: Habiba Lebrahimi, Department of Zoology and Animal Ecology, Laboratory of Zoology, Scientific Institute,  
Mohamed V University, Avenue Ibn Battouta, Agdal, 10090, Rabat, Morocco, +212762567494, zaidhabibalebrahimi@gmail.com.  
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