Journal of Environmental Treatment Techniques  
2020, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages: 853-856  
J. Environ. Treat. Tech.  
ISSN: 2309-1185  
Journal web link: http://www.jett.dormaj.com  
Strengthening Environment Resistance for  
Improving Quality Growth  
1
2
2,  
Djoko Pitoyo *, Nataliya Nikolaevna Seraya , Rustem Adamovich Shichiyakh E. Laxmi  
3
4
Lydia , K. Shankar  
1
Department of Industrial Engineering, Universitas Sangga Buana Bandung, Bandung, Indonesia. Indonesia  
2
Kuban State Agrarian University named after I.T. Trubilin, Krasnodar, The Russian Federation  
3
Professor, Vignan’s Institute of Information Technology(A), Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh,  
India  
4
Department of Computer Applications, Alagappa University, India  
Received: 23/02/2020  
Accepted: 07/05/2020  
Published: 20/08/2020  
Abstract  
In line with the development of the digital economy, various environment resources at this time can be utilized with the speed of  
distribution and increasingly good quality. The fast and dynamic digital economy penetration has shaped the landscape of the digital  
economy in Indonesia to help the environment. Nowadays, Indonesia does not only cover the demand services for environment, e-  
commerce and financial technology (Fintech), but they also provide internet of things (IoT) services. The projection of digital economy  
development in Indonesia is shown by the growth of value of e-commerce environment by 1,625 percent to USD 130 billion in the 2013-  
2
020 period. Since economics is an open system, the three main processes (extraction, processing, or production and consumption) all  
involve the generation of waste that is ultimately disposed of to the environment (air, water or land). Excessive waste in inappropriate  
locations and time will cause biological changes in the environment, which in turn damages animals, plants and ecosystems. If  
environmental damage to human health or adversely affect human welfare, economists believe that economic pollution has occurred.  
Keywords: Digital economy, Economic resources, National industry, Economic growth  
Introduction1  
prison sentencing, job recruitment or credit scoring, a second  
1
area of concern is that of algorithmic bias, the worry that when  
systems are trained using historical data, they will learn and  
perpetuate the existing biases. Advocates of the use of AI in  
personnel departments (for example, to scan the resume of job  
applicants) say using impartial machines could reduce bias. To  
ensure fairness, AI systems need to be better at explaining how  
they reach decisions (an area of much research); and they  
should help humans make better decisions, rather than making  
decisions for them. Mention AI and the term may bring to mind  
visions of rampaging killer robots, like those seen in the  
terminator films, or worries about widespread job losses as  
machines displace humans. The reality, heading into 2019, is  
more prosaic: AI lets people dictate text message instead of  
typing them, or call up music from a smart speaker on the  
kitchen counter. That does not mean that policymakers can  
ignore AI, however. As it is applied in growing number of  
areas, there are legitimate concerns about possible unintended  
consequences. The immediate concern is that the scramble to  
amass the data needed to train AI System is infringing on  
people’s privacy (4, 5). Monitoring everything that people do  
online, from shopping to reading to posting on social media,  
lets Internet giants build detailed personal profiles that can be  
used to target advertisements or recommend items of interest.  
Economic development in the next five years is aimed to  
increase economic resistance as demonstrated by the ability to  
manage economic resources, and in using these resources to  
produce high value-added goods and services to meet domestic  
and export markets. The results are expected to encourage  
quality growth as indicated by the sustainability of the carrying  
capacity of economic resources that are used to improve  
welfare fairly and equally (1-4). Economic development will be  
carried out by two approaches, namely: (1) management of  
economic resources, and (2) increasing economic value  
addition. These two approaches form the basis for synergy and  
integration of cross-sector policies covering the food and  
agriculture sectors, maritime and fisheries, industry, tourism,  
the creative economy, and the digital economy. The  
implementation of these two approaches will be supported by  
improvements of data to become a reference in monitoring,  
evaluating development achievements, and improving the  
quality of policies. The general data protection regulation, a set  
of rules on data protection and privacy was a step in the right  
direction, giving citizens, at least, more control over their data  
(and prompting some Internet companies to extend similar  
rights to all user globally). As Artificial Intelligence (AI)  
systems start to be applied in areas like predictive policing,  
Corresponding author: Djoko Pitoyo, Department of Industrial Engineering, Universitas Sangga Buana Bandung, Bandung, Indonesia.  
Indonesia. E-mail: djoko.pitoyo@usbypkp.ac.id.  
853  
Journal of Environmental Treatment Techniques  
2020, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages: 853-856  
The best response is not to regulate the use of AI directly, but  
instead to concentrate on the rules about how personal data can  
be gathered, processed and stored (6).  
3
Improving Energy Resource Side and National  
Industry  
On the energy resources side, meeting national energy still  
needs to be improved. National electricity consumption will  
only reach 1,064 kWh per capita in 2018, or lower than the  
average electricity consumption in developed countries which  
reaches 4,000 kWh per capita. The use of EBT also needs to be  
increased to achieve the target of the EBT mix of 23 percent by  
2025. Until 2018, the portion of the EBT mix has only reached  
8.4 percent, or about 2.5 percent (9.8 GW) of the existing  
potential (441, 7 GW). The management of economic  
resources, such as, food, agriculture, marine, water or energy,  
is expected to supply quality raw materials to be processed into  
high value-added products. However, its utilization has not  
been optimal. This is indicated by the weak linkages between  
up-downstream agriculture and agricultural commodity trade  
deficits due to agricultural exports that still rely on oil palm. In  
addition, there is a limited employment opportunities in rural  
areas, low young farmers' interest, and the high level of poverty  
in the agricultural sector (17-20).  
The national industry also has not been able to utilize  
existing resources optimally so that they are still dependent on  
imports. Around 71.0 percent of total imports are imports of  
raw materials and intermediate/industrial support materials.  
Various attempts have been made to reduce import  
dependency. Unfortunately, the results have not been  
significant. One of the efforts is by attracting investment for  
downstream natural resources in industrial estates (KI) and  
industrial-based Special Economic Zones (KEK) especially  
those built outside Java. Out of the 21 priority KI/KEK outside  
Java in 2018, only 8 KI / KEK have been operating, namely  
KI/KEK Sei Mangkei, KI Dumai, KI Galang Batang, KI  
Ketapang, KI Bantaeng, KI Konawe, KI/KEK Palu , and KI  
Morowali. The realized investment value is Rp.179.9 trillion  
from 58 PMA and PMDN companies. The development of KI  
and other KEK still faces challenges in land acquisition,  
management, connectivity, competitive energy access, and low  
investment. The capacity of national industries to process and  
export high value-added products is also still limited. This  
condition causes the growth of national industry added value in  
the period 2015-2018 is still lower than the average national  
growth. The contribution of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP)  
of the industry also tends to stagnate at around 20.0 percent in  
the last four years (21-26).  
Despite the stagnant performance of the manufacturing  
industry, the opportunity to drive higher economic growth in  
the future is still bigger. These opportunities contributed to the  
development of tourism and the creative and digital economy.  
The contribution of tourism in the creation of foreign exchange  
increased from USD 11.2 billion in 2014 to USD 15.2 billion  
in 2017. The increase in foreign exchange was generated from  
an increase in foreign tourist arrivals (tourists) to enjoy natural  
and cultural tourism in Indonesia from 9.4 million people in  
2014 became 15.8 million people in 2018 (27, 28). The tourist  
activity also increased from 252 million people in 2014 to 277  
million people in 2017. In total, the contribution of the tourism  
sector to the national economy is estimated to increase from 4.2  
percent in 2015 which became 4.8 percent in 2018 (29, 30).  
The utilization creativity and integration of economic and  
cultural resources also encourages the development of creative  
economic activities. Some of the indicators include the growth  
of value added creative economy which reached 4.9 percent in  
2
Improving the Management of Various  
Economic Resources  
In the 2015-2019 period, food management showed  
increased production achievements of 4.7 percent for rice, 15.2  
percent for corn, and 15.0 percent for meat. The capture  
fisheries production, including in 11 Fisheries Management  
Areas (WPP) also increased, reaching 6.9 million tons in 2017.  
Aquaculture production also increased to 16.1 million, which  
included 5.7 million tons of cultured fish (including shrimp)  
and 10.4 million tons of seaweed. Furthermore, salt production  
in 2017 is 1.1 million tons. The improvement of food  
production is also supported by the construction of water  
reservoirs with a capacity of 3m3, 49 reservoirs, and the  
rehabilitation of 788.6 thousand hectares of critical land. The  
conservation of aquatic areas as one of the fisheries  
management tools is also increased to 20.8 million hectares or  
around 6.4 percent of the total area of waters covering 172  
regions in 2018 (7-10).  
The management and production improvement of this food  
source could improve the quality of consumption and nutrition  
of the community as shown by the Hope Food Pattern (PPH)  
score of 90.7 / 100, and the food insecurity rate has decreased  
to 7.9 percent. Community fish consumption also continues to  
increase until it reaches 47.3 kg / capita / year. Community  
access to improved drinking water sources also increased to  
7
2.0 percent (11).  
The quality of people's lives also improves with access to  
better energy sources. This can be seen from the electrification  
ratio (RE) which had reached 98.3 percent in the third quarter  
of 2018. This achievement was supported by the expansion of  
the electricity distribution network, the development, and  
utilization of new and renewable energy (EBT) including  
through the development of small-scale EBT, the application of  
smartgrid , and the use of biofuels. The access to other energy  
sources, such as gas, has also been expanded. Until 2018, a total  
of 463,643 gas networks have been built (cumulative) for  
households and 10,942.48 km (cumulative) for transmission  
and distribution pipelines. The use of natural gas for domestic  
needs is also quite good with the Domestic Market Obligation  
(
(
DMO) reaching 61 percent of natural gas production in 2018  
12).  
Although some indicators show positive achievements, the  
management of various economic resources in the future still  
needs to be improved. In the management of food resources, for  
example, (1) the connection between food production centers  
and areas with high food demand still needs to be strengthened,  
and (2) adequate supply and quality of food in vulnerable  
regions of hunger, stunting, poverty and borders need to be  
more focused in food management. The management of water  
reserves also needs to be improved. National water reserves are  
actually still in the safe category. However, special attention  
needs to be given to water reserves in Java that have entered a  
rare status, and in the Bali-Nusa Tenggara region which is  
already stressed. The improvements also need to be made for  
water quality which has tended to decline since 2015 (13-16).  
2
016, with the contribution of exports reaching USD 19.9  
854  
Journal of Environmental Treatment Techniques  
2020, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages: 853-856  
billion or 13.8 percent of total exports. The number of workers  
absorbed in the creative economy sector also increased from  
the key to accelerate the development of industrial estates and  
tourism zones as new growth centers outside Java.  
1
5.5 million people in 2014 to 17.4 million people in 2017. The  
The improvement of governance was also shown in  
improving the quality of data and information. The Economic  
Census conducted in 2016 has provided the foundation for  
economic analysis and the business world for future  
development. The improvement of quality of rice production  
data in 2016 has also become the basis to improve the food  
policy. The structuring of maritime, tourism, creative economy,  
and investment data are also carried out to improve the  
accuracy of the development targets achievement and the basis  
for policy making.  
achievement of exports and creative economy workers has  
exceeded the targets in the 2015-2019 RPJMN (31-35).  
4
The Digital Realm Accelerates and Economic  
Growth  
The digital realm accelerates its encroachment into nearly  
every aspect of our lives. While Bitcoin, a decentralized digital  
DP) or crypto currency (CC) was first introduced in 2009, it  
(
was not until Facebook made a spectacular announcement in  
June 2019 that their Company was preparing to launch the  
References  
“Libra”, its own so called stable digital currency in 2020, that  
1
.
Sarracino F. When Does Economic Growth Improve Well-Being?.  
debate flared up as to whether the new DPs or CCs would  
become accepted new currencies that would out compete flat  
money  including all currencies as means of payments that  
society is familiar with  or whether they would remain just  
another kind of financial assets that investors and speculators  
trade in the markets (36).  
In The Economics of Happiness (pp. 355-370). Springer, Cham.  
2
019.  
2
.
Saud S, Chen S, Haseeb A. Impact of financial development and  
economic growth on environmental quality: an empirical analysis  
from Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) countries. Environmental  
Science and Pollution Research. 2019 Jan 30;26(3):2253-69.  
Economic growth has succeeded in creating quite high jobs.  
During 2015-2018, on average, every 1 percent of economic  
growth can create 460,000 jobs, 9.4 million new jobs and open  
unemployment decreasing from 6.2 percent (2015) to 5.3  
percent (2018). The service sector was able to create the highest  
employment, which was around 9.8 million workers, while the  
industrial sector was only able to absorb around 3.0 million  
people, and the workforce in the agricultural sector declined  
around 3.3 million people. The proportion of formal workers  
also increased from 42.3 percent in 2015 to 43.2 percent in  
3. Zallé O. Natural resources and economic growth in Africa: The  
role of institutional quality and human capital. Resources Policy.  
2
019 Aug 1;62:616-24.  
4
.
Yalmaev RA, Shalaev VA, Giyazov AT, Tashkulova GK. The  
Perspectives of Provision of New Quality of Growth of Economic  
Systems in the Digital Economy. InInstitute of Scientific  
Communications Conference 2019 Apr 17 (pp. 30-38). Springer,  
Cham.  
5. Singsa A, Sriyakul T, Sutduean J, Jermsittiparsert K. Willingness  
of Supply Chain Employees to Support Disability Management at  
Workplace: A Case of Indonesian Supply Chain Companies.  
Journal of Computational and Theoretical Nanoscience. 2019 Jul  
2
018 (37).  
The activities to increase added value in various sectors  
1
;16(7):2982-9.  
6
.
Jermsittiparsert K, Chankoson T. Behavior of Tourism Industry  
under the Situation of Environmental Threats and Carbon  
Emission: Time Series Analysis from Thailand. International  
Journal of Energy Economics and Policy. 2019;9(6):366-72.  
have not been able to fully encourage structural improvements  
in the economy. Affirmation efforts are still needed specifically  
to increase the capacity and value added of micro, small, and  
medium enterprises (MSMEs). This is important considering  
that MSME employs around 97.0 percent of the workforce in  
Indonesia. These various development achievement is also  
supported by improvements in development governance. One  
of the achievements was shown from the improvement in Ease  
of Doing Business (EoDB) ranking from 106 in 2015 to 72 in  
7. Romprasert S, Jermsittiparsert K. Energy Risk Management and  
Cost of Economic Production Biodiesel Project. International  
Journal of Energy Economics and Policy. 2019;9(6):349-57.  
8
.
Kasayanond A, Umam R, Jermsittiparsert K. Environmental  
sustainability and its growth in Malaysia by elaborating the green  
economy and environmental efficiency. International Journal of  
Energy Economics and Policy. 2019;9(5):465-473.  
2
017. The EoDB rating dropped to 73 in 2018, although the  
9
.
Jermsittiparsert K, Sriyakul T, Rodboonsong S. Power (Lessness)  
of the state in globalisation Era: Empirical proposals on  
determination of domestic paddy price in Thailand. Asian Social  
Science. 2013 Dec 1;9(17):209.  
EoDB distance to frontier (DTF) score showed an increase  
from 61.2 in in 2015 to 67.9 in 2018. This shows the challenge  
that even though Indonesia continues to improve EoDB, other  
countries can improve more quickly. The acceleration in  
improving EoDB is expected to encourage an increasingly  
conducive business climate (38, 39).  
1
1
0. Jermsittiparsert K, Sriyakul T, Pamornmast C. Minimum Wage  
and Country's Economic Competitiveness: An Empirical  
Discourse Analysis. The Social Sciences. 2014 Jul 1;9(4):244-50.  
1. Jermsittiparsert K, Pamornmast C, Sriyakul T. An Empirical  
Discourse Analysis on Correlations between Exchange Rate and  
Industrial Product Export. International Business Management.  
2014;8(5):295-300.  
5
Conclusion  
The results of the EoDB improvement in the 2015-2018  
1
1
2. Saint Akadiri S, Bekun FV, Sarkodie SA. Contemporaneous  
interaction between energy consumption, economic growth and  
environmental sustainability in South Africa: What drives what?.  
Science of the total environment. 2019 Oct 10;686:468-75.  
3. Long X, Ji X. Economic Growth Quality, Environmental  
Sustainability, and Social Welfare in China-Provincial Assessment  
Based on Genuine Progress Indicator (GPI). Ecological  
economics. 2019 May 1;159:157-76.  
period were also shown from an increase in the realization of  
investment value from Rp.545.4 trillion in 2015 to Rp.721.3  
trillion in 2018. The Domestic Investment (PMDN) continued  
to increase, although the proportion was new by 45.6 percent.  
This condition shows the challenges to improve the investment  
quality by increasing the proportion of domestic investment.  
The distribution of investment is also an aspect that needs to be  
improved, considering that investment realization is still  
focused in Java (56.2 percent). The acceleration of  
infrastructure development, the preparation of skilled labor, the  
certainty of land, and the harmonization of regulations are the  
key to spread investment outside Java. These aspects are also  
14. Padhan H, Haouas I, Sahoo B, Heshmati A. What matters for  
environmental quality in the Next Eleven Countries: economic  
growth or income inequality?. Environmental Science and  
Pollution Research. 2019 Jun 11:1-20.  
1
5. Nansadiqa L, Masbar R, Majid MS. Does Economic Growth  
Matter For Poverty Reduction In Indonesia?. East African Scholars  
855  
Journal of Environmental Treatment Techniques  
2020, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages: 853-856  
Journal of Economics, Business and Management. 2019;2(2):46-  
Learning Environment (MLE) in Big Data Era. International  
Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning. 2018 May 1;13(5).  
33. Huda M, Maseleno A, Atmotiyoso P, Siregar M, Ahmad R, Jasmi  
K, Muhamad N. Big data emerging technology: insights into  
innovative environment for online learning resources.  
International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning  
(iJET). 2018 Jan 22;13(1):23-36.  
34. Alipour E, Alimohammady F, Yumashev A, Maseleno A.  
Fullerene C60 containing porphyrin-like metal center as drug  
delivery system for ibuprofen drug. Journal of Molecular  
Modeling. 2020 Jan 1;26(1):7.  
5
2.  
1
1
6. Adesanya OA, Shittu LAJ, Oyesola TO, Odubela OO, Adesanya  
RA. Does Economic Growth Matter For Poverty Reduction In  
Indonesia?. 2019.  
7. Dina R, Sentosa SU. Analysis of Effect of Human Capital,  
Infrastructure Investment and Infrastructure Consumption of  
Economic Growth in Indonesia. InThird Padang International  
Conference On Economics Education, Economics, Business and  
Management, Accounting and Entrepreneurship (PICEEBA 2019)  
2
019 Sep. Atlantis Press.  
1
8. Cao Y, Huang L, Li Y, Jermsittiparsert K, Ahmadi-Nezamabad H,  
Nojavan S. Optimal scheduling of electric vehicles aggregator  
under market price uncertainty using robust optimization  
technique. International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy  
Systems. 2020 May 1;117:105628.  
35. Namdarian A, Tabrizi AG, Maseleno A, Mohammadi A,  
Moosavifard SE. One step synthesis of rGO-Ni3S2 nano-cubes  
composite for high-performance supercapacitor electrodes.  
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. 2018 Sep  
13;43(37):17780-7.  
1
2
9. Yu D, Wang Y, Liu H, Jermsittiparsert K, Razmjooy N. System  
identification of PEM fuel cells using an improved Elman neural  
network and a new hybrid optimization algorithm. Energy Reports.  
36. Desfiandi A, Singagerda FS, Sanusi A. Building an Energy  
Consumption Model and Sustainable Economic Growth in  
Emerging Countries. International Journal of Energy Economics  
and Policy. 2019 Feb 14;9(2):51-66.  
37. Ibatova AZ. The impact of the economy on teachers' workin the  
The Russian Federation. International Journal of Applied Business  
and Economic Research. 2017;15(21):67-73.  
38. Ziyadin S, Ermekbaeva B, Supugaliyeva G, Doszhan R.  
Transformation of basic indicators of socio-economic processes in  
the digital economy. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 31st  
International Business Information Management Association  
Conference, IBIMA 2018: Innovation Management and Education  
Excellence through Vision 2020. 2018:2009-2017.  
2
019 Nov 1;5:1365-74.  
0. Tian MW, Ebadi AG, Jermsittiparsert K, Kadyrov M, Ponomarev  
A, Javanshir N, Nojavan S. Risk-based stochastic scheduling of  
energy hub system in the presence of heating network and thermal  
energy management. Applied Thermal Engineering. 2019 May  
3
1:113825.  
2
1. Yu D, Wang J, Li D, Jermsittiparsert K, Nojavan S. Risk-averse  
stochastic operation of a power system integrated with hydrogen  
storage system and wind generation in the presence of demand  
response program. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy.  
2
019 Nov 29;44(59):31204-15.  
39. Sharafutdinov RI, Akhmetshin EM, Polyakova AG, Gerasimov  
VO, Shpakova RN, Mikhailova MV. Inclusive growth: A dataset  
on key and institutional foundations for inclusive development of  
Russian regions. Data in Brief. 2019 Apr 1;23:103864.  
2
2
2
2
2
2
2. Jabarullah NH, Jermsittiparsert K, Melnikov PA, Maseleno A,  
Hosseinian A, Vessally E. Methods for the direct synthesis of  
thioesters from aldehydes: a focus review. Journal of Sulfur  
Chemistry. 2019 Sep 5:1-20.  
3. Jiao Y, Jermsittiparsert K, Krasnopevtsev AY, Yousif QA,  
Salmani M. Interaction of thermal cycling and electric current on  
reliability of solder joints in different solder balls. Materials  
Research Express. 2019 Aug 7;6(10):106302.  
4. Yu D, Ebadi AG, Jermsittiparsert K, Jabarullah NH, Vasiljeva  
MV, Nojavan S. Risk-constrained Stochastic Optimization of a  
Concentrating Solar Power Plant. IEEE Transactions on  
Sustainable Energy. 2019 Jul 10.  
5. Jermsittiparsert K, Sriyakul T, Sutduean J, Singsa A. Determinants  
of Supply Chain Employees Safety Behaviours. Journal of  
Computational and Theoretical Nanoscience. 2019 Jul  
1
;16(7):2959-66.  
6. Sriyakul T, Singsa A, Sutduean J, Jermsittiparsert K. Effect of  
Cultural Traits, Leadership Styles and Commitment to Change on  
Supply Chain Operational Excellence. Journal of Computational  
and Theoretical Nanoscience. 2019 Jul 1;16(7):2967-74.  
7. Sutduean J, Singsa A, Sriyakul T, Jermsittiparsert K. Supply Chain  
Integration, Enterprise Resource Planning, and Organizational  
Performance: The Enterprise Resource Planning Implementation  
Approach. Journal of Computational and Theoretical Nanoscience.  
2
019 Jul 1;16(7):2975-81.  
2
8. Jermsittiparsert K, Sriyakul T, Pamornmast C, Rodboonsong S,  
Boonprong W, Sangperm N, Pakvichai V, Vipaporn T,  
Maneechote K. A Comparative Study of the Administration of  
Primary Education between the Provincial Administration  
Organisation and the Office of the Basic Education Commission in  
Thailand. The Social Sciences. 2016 Nov 1;11(21):5104-10.  
9. Jermsittiparsert K, Trimek J, Vivatthanaporn A. Fear of Crime  
among People in Muang-Ake, Lak-Hok, Muang, Pathumthani. The  
Social Sciences. 2015;10(1):24-30.  
0. Jermsittiparsert K, Akahat N. Fear of Crime among Students of  
Kalasin Rajabhat University. Research Journal of Applied  
Sciences. 2016 Mar 1;11(2):54-61.  
1. Maseleno A, Huda M, Jasmi KA, Basiron B, Mustari I, Don AG,  
bin Ahmad R. Hau-Kashyap approach for student’s level of  
expertise. Egyptian Informatics Journal. 2019 Mar 1;20(1):27-32.  
2. Huda M, Maseleno A, Teh KS, Don AG, Basiron B, Jasmi KA,  
Mustari MI, Nasir BM, Ahmad R. Understanding Modern  
2
3
3
3
856