Journal of Environmental Treatment Techniques  
2021, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages: 218-223  
J. Environ. Treat. Tech.  
ISSN: 2309-1185  
Journal web link:  
Adsorptive Removal of Dyes onto Cost Effective  
Biomaterials A Review  
Mary Jency I , Gowrisankar L , Krishnaveni J , Renugadevi. N  
Department of Chemistry, Karpagam College of Engineering, Coimbatore. Tamilnadu, India  
Department of Chemistry, Suguna college of Engineering, Coimbatore. Tamilnadu, India  
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Avinashilingham University, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India  
Received: 25/06/2020  
Accepted: 13/10/2020  
Published: 20/03/2021  
A higher percentage of dyes from the industrial waste water are being released into aquatic ecosystems and polluted the natural  
ecosystem. An abundance of technologies available for removal of Dyes from the industrial waste water are expensive and ineffective.  
Many of these processes are economically not viable for small and medium scale industries due to large scale applications.Recent  
Investigational researches have proved that the successful elimination of dyes is obtained using numerous economically available non-  
conventional adsorbents also. Several experimental investigations on adsorption provedthattremendous treatment for dye removal and  
can be obtained using cheaply available non-conventional adsorbent.This review is mainly focused to the systematic study on utilizing  
low cost absorbent of dye removal from the effluents discharged from the industries. The data on economically cheap adsorbents and its  
properties for removing dyes resulted from the recent literature survey are summarized. Therefore, this review provides the various  
methods to treat the wastewater using low-price natural sources of adsorption materials, non-viable biomaterials.  
Keywords: Classification of dye, Dye removal method, Adsorption, Industrial effluents, Biomass  
.1.1Dye Removal Methods  
Selection of dye, uses and its application were not given  
With growing technology and science, global has reached  
great importance with regard to environmental impact before  
few decades earlier. Many information is available in the last  
few years regarding the effects of using the dyestuff in the  
environment. Control measures to treat the dye wastewater are  
done by government, users and the dye manufacturers.  
According to physical, chemical and biological process some  
treatment methods can be done i.e., shown in Table 2.  
to a very fresh horizon. Dyes are highly objectionable pollutant  
leads to the issues such as sensitization of skin, eye and skin  
irritation and dyes are highly carcinogenic nature. Due to  
demand on economical source and space to install the facilities  
of on-site treatment, the major donors of industrial effluents are  
the enterprises of small and medium size. The essential and  
environment challenge in recent years are the wastewater dye  
removal process that should be cheap and efficient. Most of the  
industries used to treat the effluent before discharging them to  
the environment, they are recycling off-site and diluted to  
decrease the toxicity that have proven to be highly economic  
and ultimately unsustainable. Therefore, it is required to create  
an effective process that can efficiently remove color is now at  
an utmost priority, one out of them is adsorption using activated  
carbon. Many investigations on adsorption reveal that the  
process is effective for the colour removal from the dye  
effluents. Commercial activated charcoal (carbon) is found to  
be effective but expensive one. Thus, it is necessary to find an  
adsorbent which is abundant, cheap and also effective (63).  
.1.2 Adsorption Process  
Generally, the process of adsorption is used for removing  
the colour and for the treatment of wastewater (10). Among all  
the methods available for removal of dye from industrial waste  
waters, the adsorption process only proved as possible method  
for removal of dye in waste water treatment. Hippocrates and  
Pliny the Elder studied the carbon adsorption of porous for  
medicinal purpose and earlier the adsorption on carbon method  
was studied in an ancient Egyptian Papyrus. The quantity of  
absorbate that gather on the outer layer of the absorbent that  
commonly contains high surface area and porous structure are  
the significant properties to be noticed. The important point to  
consider is that the time required for achieving adsorption  
equilibrium should be as short as possible; therefore it is used  
for removing the dye from waste in shorter time. The physical  
and chemical methods are the two basic activation methods that  
are known to be the oldest for activated carbon adsorbent which  
is prepared from coal, lignite, wool and coconut shells. The  
formation of product is porous in nature along with a surface  
Classification of Dye  
Based on the application mode, dyes are generally  
classified according to their structure. It is virtue to point that  
the principal system adopted to classify by its applications are  
Color Index (C.I) with its five-digit number and hue (51) shown  
in Table 1.  
area ranges from 500m /g to 2000m /g which is large. As a  
result, many researchers attempted to develop an alternate  
Corresponding author:Krishnaveni J, Department of Chemistry, Suguna college of Engineering, Coimbatore. Tamilnadu, India. E-  
Journal of Environmental Treatment Techniques  
2021, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages: 218-223  
cheap adsorbent and for controlling the pollution that may  
replace the available commercial activated carbon by  
Adsorption process.  
Therefore, adsorption processes are more advantageous over  
the available process due to its low capital cost, operation cost  
and also for simpler design. Absorbents which are naturally  
available, wastes and by products obtained from industries and  
synthetic products which are economical are called low price  
adsorbents. Researchers suggest and adopt this concept  
according to the various discussions on forming, using and  
applying the low-price adsorbents. The low-price adsorbents  
studied on the based on their availability as follows: (a) natural  
available materials; (b) industrial/ Domestic/ Agricultural  
Table 1: Classification of Dyes  
Ink jet printing, nylon, paper,  
Soluble in water leather modified acrylic, wool,  
food and cosmetics.  
Polyesters that modified,  
wastes and  
by-products; and (c) synthesized products  
medicine, nylons, polyethylene  
terephthalate of dyeing cation,  
Soluble in water  
paper and polyacrylonitrile.  
Insoluble in  
Cellulosic fibers, cotton, rayon  
and wool.  
2.2.1 Naturally available Materials  
The naturally available materials are used as cost  
Vat Dyes  
low adsorbents which exist in natural environment and are used  
as such or with small treatment. The bark of the Eucalyptus can  
be used as an absorbent without any minor treatment for dye  
removal. Wood is used for the acid removal and basic dye  
removal to overcome the economic drawback of activated  
charcoal. Coal which exists naturally is used for removing both  
acid and basic dye. For the removal of Triazo direct dye, coal-  
based adsorbents like lignite coal, bituminous coal and char  
fines have been used. Peat is another adsorbent which is  
naturally available and used for the various pollutants and dyes  
by most of the researchers. Ramakrishna and Viraraghavan (46,  
Insoluble in  
Gasoline, waxes, oils, petrol and  
Anionic dyes  
which are  
soluble in water  
Nylon, cotton dyeing, rayon,  
leather and paper.  
Cotton, other cellulosic, nylon and  
Nylon, polyester, cellulose and  
fiber acrylics.  
Soluble in water  
non-ionic dyes  
.2 Low cost Adsorbents  
Physical methods like ion exchange and reverse osmosis  
48) identified the potential of adsorbent such as peat, bentonite  
clay, fly ash and slag for removing the acid, base and disperse  
dye. Of many naturally available materials, clay occupies a  
very good place in being cheap, abundant and possessing  
excellent property of adsorption. Sepiolite were used for the  
removing the reactive blue 221.  
were used for the removal of dyes form the industrial waste  
water. However, due to their high capital and operational costs,  
these methods restrict the use in large scale level in the  
industries. Among all the process that are available for treating  
the effluents, adsorption method shows possible treatment to  
remove the organic pollutant from industrial wastewater.  
Table 2: Methods of Dye Removal  
Economically attractive. Good  
removal efficiency Cost  
intensive regeneration process,  
Regeneration with low loss of  
adsorbents, Good sorption for  
specific colourant, Effective  
removal for a wide range of  
colourants at low volumes (6).  
Effective for both soluble and  
insoluble colourants, Capable  
of decolourizing wide variety  
of wastes, Short detention time  
and low capital costs, Good  
removal efficiencies (6, 59,  
Sedimentation process, Reverse  
Osmosis, microfiltration,  
ultrafiltration, nanofiltration  
Life span of membrane is short, membrane  
is costly, energy consumption is high and  
high pressure on working (61).  
Coagulation, Flocculation Process,  
Oxidation process (H O2, Cl, Fenton’s The pH range less than 3.5 shows sludge  
reagent, KMnO and O  
), Ozonation  
formation, long reaction time (2, 22, 33,  
49, 60, 68).  
process, Photo catalysis, Advanced  
Oxidation Process.  
Colour removal is facilitated  
along with COD removal,  
Resistant to wide variety of  
complex colourants. Bio gas  
produced is used for steam  
generation, Good removal  
efficiency for low volumes and  
concentrations. Very effective  
for specific colourant removal  
Conditions like Anaerobic, Aerobic  
or both anaerobicaerobic  
Bacteria and fungi such as  
Large landscape is required, longer times,  
cost-effective, biodegradability is low,  
flexibility is low in design and operation  
(4, 11, 13, 44, 50, 52).  
Biological Phanerochaetechrysosporium,  
Treatment Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas  
aerogenosia, Bacillus species, and  
various microorganisms of  
6, 59, 67).  
Journal of Environmental Treatment Techniques  
2021, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages: 218-223  
smectites,diatomite and alunite clays are also used as adsorbent  
for dye removal. TiO nanoparticles are used for the removal of  
methyl violet and Zeolite is the adsorbent which is microporous  
in nature utilized mainly for eliminating pollutants and dyes  
The possibility of using palm oil ash as a low-price adsorbent  
for the successfully removed the Two commercial dyes i.e.  
disperse blue and disperse red dyes (26). Attempt has been  
made to utilize the boiler bottom ash, saw dust ash, rice husk  
ash and wood coal with impregnation of an adsorbent for the  
removing the dye of basic nature (58). Shale oil ash was used  
as an adsorbent for the removal of dyes. Red mud, a by-product  
of aluminium industry has been investigated (37) for the  
removal of various dyes such as fast green, rhodamine B,  
methylene blue, congo red and also by diatomite. Another  
productive investigation was also done with the various basic  
dyes on process of adsorption and also onto Microporous  
activated carbon prepared from Euphorbia antiquorum L was  
impregnated with polyvinyl alcohol (62, 69).  
39, 42). Beach sand coated with polyaniline were used as an  
efficient green adsorbent for removing dye from aqueous  
solution (7).It has proved that beach sand has extremely cost-  
effective substrate for coating with polyaniline in order to be  
used as efficient adsorbent for dye removal from aqueous  
The removal of the anionic dyes using natural sepiolite and  
bentonite are related with the activated carbon was studied  
17). A surfactant removal of 90% was achieved in within 15  
min due to the more affinity between adsorbent and surfactant.  
Natural bentonite activated with 0.5 M H2SO4 was proved that  
the most successful adsorbent for ethoxylatednonylphenol.  
During the combustion of liquid fuel in fertilizer plants,  
carbon slurry waste is generated and it has been transformed  
into activated carbon which is inexpensive. Generally, Sewage  
sludge is used to develop the material which is carbonaceous  
with the help of chemical activation. This material was utilized  
to remove dyes and phenol along with the wastes of blast  
furnaces slag, sludge and dust from the steel industries. To  
control the environment impact and to improve the low- price  
concept, an attempt was made to eliminate the dyes such as  
Methylene Orange and Methyl Blue by alginate beads that has  
activated carbon and carbon nanotubes(55).They showed the  
better results in The dye removal using 40 g L-1 of CNTs was  
above 90% and also the amount of dye adsorption improved  
with increasing the initial concentration of the dye, CNTs  
dosage, and temperature.  
.2.2 Industrial/ Domestic/Agricultural wastes and its by-  
Besides many naturally available materials, numerous  
wastes from agricultural and its by-products were explored to  
be an adsorbent for eliminating the pollutants by a bunch of  
workers. Sawdust, almond shells, walnut and poplar has been  
studied for removing the acid red 183 and green 25 dyes from  
the aqueous solution. Some cheap adsorbents such as walnut  
sawdust, pitch pine, cherry, oak and ground hazelnut materials  
were carried out to remove the Acid Blue and Methylene Blue  
dyes from the effluents (19). To remove basic and direct dyes,  
Sunflower stalks and cotton stalk were studied as adsorbent  
Many materials like polymer materials, bottom ash, waste  
tyre rubber, de-oiled soya (34), double layered hydroxides,  
pyrite, black tea leaves and artificial iron sulphide, impregnated  
alum activated alumina, sorel’s cement, rosacanina and  
calcined alunite seeds was studied as an adsorbent and proved  
as a effective removal efficiency percentage onto to the dyes.  
Utilization of waste peels of potato and activated orange (35),  
husk of potato (43), peels of mandarin and yellow passion fruit,  
Brazilian pine fruit shell, coffee bean, babassu, cupuassu  
related to cocoa, tree leaves, wood shavings (12), powders of  
different plant leaves (57) were investigated and showed the  
better results in efficiency of dye removal percentage in  
different pH range and high removal dye at 333K. The powder  
of orange peel (18,29) was also used as an adsorbent and  
proved to be cheap and economical. Adsorbent like Mehagoni  
leaf and Neem is used for dye removal from the effluents  
discharged in textiles (9, 56). The efficiency for Neem leaf was  
found Blue BFG 50.5%, Orange MERL 66.02%, Red  
EV8V5(dye) 57%, and for Mahagoni leaf Red EV8V5(dye)  
77%, Blue BFG 67.77%, Orange MERL 60%, respectively.  
The adsorption of metals by different materials namely  
used tyres carbon, phosphate treated sawdust, olive cake/stone  
and pine needles, moss, risk husk carbon, cactus, maize cob,  
sphagnum moss peat, sugar beet pulp, cane bagasse, cow dung  
carbon, waste slurry, rice straw, quaternised wood, carbon  
slurry and hen feathers. Activated groundnut husk carbon, husk  
of coconut, ground nut shell, coconut shell, leaf mould, palm  
pressed fibers, wood and coconut juice carbon and coconut  
fiber (16, 23, 32). From the above investigations proved that  
Activated Rice Husk, at 500 mg/L the highest of 62%, 68% and  
65% elimination of Zn (II), Cu(II) and Cr(VI) were obtained  
respectively, but in Activated Coconut Fiber, at 500 mg/L the  
greatest of 64%, 67% and 72% removal of Zn(II), Cu(II) and  
Cr(VI) were obtained respectively.  
15). Subha and Namasivayam, 2009, studied on coir pith  
which is an agriculture residue as a good adsorbent for  
adsorptionof Rhodamine B and Acid Violet dyes that proved.  
The adsorption capacity was found to be 2.6mg/g of acid violet  
dyes (64). An attempt of removing industrial dye using dried  
green seaweeds was carried out (47). The maximum removal  
percentage and efficiency was 100mg fine biomass of green  
seaweeds 100 mg/L dye solution. Another appealing  
agriculture waste is the sawdust, mainly used for removing  
heavy metals and dyes (38). The study was also carried out with  
timber sawdust for the methyl violet dye biosorption and dye  
adsorption dependency by other workers (40) the chemically  
tailored adsorbent behaves proficiently in a extensive pH range  
throughout the consistent and quick sorption process.  
The wastes and the by-products which are formed from  
steel, sugar, metal, thermal power planta and industrial  
fertilizer has been used as an adsorbent. From the bamboo pulp  
mill by-product spherical sulphonic lignin was prepared and  
Lignin was prepared from the paper mills discharge waste and  
by-product reviewed (24, 25). They also highlighted the  
utilization of Lignin adsorbent and its effective  
removalperformance and recovery of cationic dyes.  
Coal based thermal power plant discharges high amount of  
fly ash and by-product materials. Fly ash as a cheap adsorbent  
were studied to remove cationic dye such as crystal violet and  
rosaniline hydrochloride. Dye removal such as acid yellow,  
disperse blue and direct yellowcan be done utilizing the fly ash  
adsorbent (5). By-products and wastes of steel plants  
discharges wastes and by-products such as blast furnaces slag,  
sludge and dusts wasstudied for the dye removal. Different dye  
removal like disperse red and acid red was achieved by fly ash  
adsorbent compare with other three adsorbents like peat,  
bentonite clay, and steel plant slag were suggested by other  
workers (31,46).  
Orange peel is used for the removing acid violet dye from  
aqueous solution and resulted in the maximum removal of 87%  
was proved at pH 2.0 for an adsorbent dose of 60 g/50 ml of 1  
Rice mills contains waste residues of rice husk ash, were  
used as an adsorbent for removing the dye of acidic in nature.  
Journal of Environmental Treatment Techniques  
2021, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages: 218-223  
g/L dye concentration (45). Banana pith is utilized for the  
process of adsorption of basic violet dyes from the waste water  
and Bagasse pith is used to eliminate the dyes which are acidic  
and basic nature. Another adsorbent such as husks of barley,  
corncobs and wheat straw was used for the adsorption of  
Cibacron Red, Blue and Yellow and Remazol Red, Black and  
palm fruit bunch was explored for the adsorption method to  
remove the Basic Red, Basic Yellow and Basic Blueby  
Robinson et al., 2001. Agricultural waste rice straw as