2020, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages: 17-23  
J. Environ. Treat. Tech.  
ISSN: 2309-1185  
Journal web link: http://www.jett.dormaj.com  
https://doi.org/10.47277/JETT/9(1)23  
Estimation of Metal Ions in Various Soil Samples in  
Relation to Crop Production (Wheat, Mustard,  
Barley) at Different Region of Dehradun India  
1
2
3
4
M. Amin Mir , Muhammad Waqar Ashraf , MMS Jassal , Maythem Mahmud  
1
Assistant Research Professor, Department of Mathematics & Natural Sciences, Prince Mohammad Bin Fahd University, AlKhobar, Saudi Arabia  
2
Dean Department of Mathematics & Natural Sciences, Prince Mohammad Bin Fahd University, AlKhobar, Saudi Arabia  
3
Assistant Professor DAV (PG) College Dehradun, India  
4Assistant Professor, Department of Mathematics & Natural Sciences, Prince Mohammad Bin Fahd University, AlKhobar, Saudi Arabia  
Received: 06/01/2020  
Accepted: 13/04/2020  
Published: 20/12/2020  
Abstract  
Metals in the form of salts or as such have a profound effect on development and growth of crops. Various soil samples at different  
regions of Dehradun (India) have been analysed analytically for the concentration of various metal ions in relation to the growth and  
development of wheat, mustard and barley. The various metal ions have been found in a good concentration range at which the concerned  
crops could show maximum growth and development. The concentration of various salts like phosphate ion as determined  
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spectrophotometrically was found to be in between 0.732 to 1.610, for NO  
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the concentration was found in between 0.210 to 0.998 mg/kg,  
2
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and the concentration of NO  
2
was found to be 0.138 to 0.475 mg/kg. The metal ions were determined analytically and the concentration  
of various metals like Pb was found in the range of 0.101 - 0.265 mg/kg, Zn in the range of 0.047  0.175 mg/kg, Cu in the range of 0.015  
0.101 mg/kg and the concentration of Fe was found in the range of 0.120  0.462 mg/kg. Na, K, Li and Ba were analysed by flame-  
2+  
photometry and the concentration of Na was found in the range 0.10- 0.47 ppm, K in the range of 0.70  2.4 ppm, Li 0.00  0.01 ppm and  
the Ba in the range of 0.00  0.03 ppm. Also the data reveals the distributions of heavy metals in the agricultural land of the concerned  
region and can be used to estimate the risks associated with the consumption of crops grown on such soils. So the soil samples which have  
been examined can be opted for the production of various crops as the soil samples show a good quality and quantity of various mineral  
ions. The Dehradun in total bears a good range of forests and soil is rich of various types of mineral salts so could be used for the growth of  
multiple crops.  
Keywords: Metal Ions, Wheat, Mustard, Barley, Flame-photometry, Analytical  
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concentration of various heavy metals is not confirmed in various  
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Introduction  
soils, but land disposal of wastes in the soil effects the crop  
production due accumulation of heavy metals (5, 6). Livestock  
manure is a good organic fertilizer that contains all types of  
nutrients such as amino acids, nucleic acids, sugars, and  
vitamins, in addition is a good source of organic matter, nitrogen,  
phosphorus, potassium, and some micronutrients (1, 7). The soil  
fertility can be increased by recycling of livestock manure which  
leads to increase in the productivity of crops (2, 8) by improving  
the soil properties (9), enhancing the ability of nutrients and their  
retention (10), and by step to step improvement in the soil  
nutrients (11), which also leads to the availability of manure to  
plants (12).  
Presently the agricultural system the use of manures has  
attracted more attention for its sustainable development (13).  
Researchers have mentioned that together use of organic manure  
and chemical fertilizers could have more results for combating  
nutrient depletion and for crop production (14). Jiang et al. (15)  
mentioned that direct application of manure increases the crop  
Environment is sum total of surroundings within which  
humans exist. The environment is made up of: the land, the water  
and the atmosphere of the earth; microorganisms, plant and  
animal life. The combination of the items on this list and the  
interrelationships among and between them, the physical,  
chemical, aesthetic and cultural properties and conditions of the  
foregoing that influence the human health and well-being does  
come under the study of environment. The environment is also  
characterised by the number of spheres that influence its behavior  
and intrinsic value, among which the most important sphere is  
biosphere because it harbours the living organisms. This is the  
sphere where you find living organisms (plants and animals)  
interacting with each and their nonliving environment (soil, air  
and water).  
Metals in both in aquatic and terrestrial environment are  
important for the growth and development of all types of plants  
1, 2 & 3). However, at some locations the soil gets contaminated  
(
with various non-essential metals by humans (4). The toxic  
Corresponding author: M. Amin Mir, Assistant Research Professor, Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences PMU University  
Al Khobar Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. E-mail: mohdaminmir@gmail.com, Telephone: +91-9897635334 and +966-506105478  
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