Journal of Environmental Treatment Techniques  
2021, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages: 117-121  
J. Environ. Treat. Tech.  
ISSN: 2309-1185  
Journal web link:  
Sustainability Management and Planning of Coastal  
Areas and Small Islands to Ensure Environmental  
Justice for Fishermen Communities  
Nuswantoro Dwiwarno , Lazarus Tri Setyawanta, Retno Saraswati  
Diponegoro University, Semarang, Indonesia  
Received: 01/09/2020  
Accepted: 20/10/2020  
Published: 20/03/2021  
As the largest archipelagic state in the world, most provinces in Indonesia have coastal areas with different physical characteristics. In  
addition, Indonesia has small islands located on the outer side of the country. So far, there are unclear regulations and management to protect  
the ecological environment in these areas, as well as legal protection for residents. This study seeks to analyze the sustainability management  
in coastal waters and development planning of small islands to ensure environmental justice for fishermen communities with special reference  
to Law No. 1 of 2014 regarding the Management of Coastal Areas and Small Islands. This study also wants to analyze the obstacles in the  
implementation of Law No. 1 of 2014 regarding Management of Coastal Areas and Small Islands. The results showed that the coastal waters  
management scheme according to the law is carried out through the mechanism of location permits and management permits and requires  
that the permits granted must not violate the decision of the Constitutional Court. In addition, in this law, the government grants the  
community the right to propose the preparation of Strategic Zoning Plan for the Management of Coastal Areas and Small Islands.  
Keywords: Sustainable Development, Spatial Planning, Marine Environment, Small Island, Environmental Justice, Indigenous Rights  
damage to coastal areas [11, 12, 13, 14].  
In order to ensure the sustainability of natural resources and  
planned coastal management; integrated and providing great  
benefits to coastal communities, the Government enacted Law  
No. 27 of 2007 concerning Management of Coastal Areas and  
Small Islands [15]. One of the legal breakthroughs in this law is  
the emergence of Coastal Water Concession Rights (hereinafter  
referred to as HP-3). Instead of realizing the welfare of the fishing  
community, the enactment of this law has actually triggered  
polemics and resistance from various groups, especially the  
enforcement of the HP-3 which is feared to displace fishing  
communities from their traditional fishing areas.  
An eminent environmentalist, Wahana Lingkungan Hidup  
Indonesia (Walhi) along with several non-governmental  
organizations (NGOs) as well as fishing communities agreed to  
submit a request to the Constitutional Court for a Judicial Review.  
In essence, they asked for the annulment of several articles related  
to HP3 in Law No. 27 of 2007, because they were considered to  
be against the interests of the Indonesian people, in particular  
Article 33 and Article 18 letter B; Article 28 I; and Article 32 of  
the 1945 Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia. Through  
decision Number 3/PUUVIII/2010 the Constitutional Court (MK)  
finally granted part of the petition and stated that the articles  
related to HP-3 no longer have binding power because they  
contradict the 1945 Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia.  
Following up on this decision, the government issued Law No. 1  
Indonesia is the largest archipelago in the world consisting of  
7,499 islands, making it the largest archipelagic state in the  
planet. The total area of Indonesia is 7.81 million km, consisting  
of 2.01 million km of land, 3.25 million km of ocean, and 2.55  
Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). As an archipelago, most  
provinces in Indonesia have coastal areas with different physical  
characteristics [1, 2]. Indonesia is a country with the longest  
coastline in the world, formed from geological formations since  
the Pleistocene [3, 4, 5]. With its characteristics that are formed  
from thousands of islands, Indonesia has an inland sea in the form  
of straits, coastal waters, bays and other forms of water with a  
very large number (93,000 square kilometers), and 6,159,032  
km2 of the Exclusive Economic Zone [6, 7]. Coastal waters have  
a strategic meaning in building the nation and the welfare of its  
people because it is an important area from a planning and  
management point of view [8, 9]. On the other hand, the misuse  
of natural resources in coastal areas can result in threats to the  
sustainability of very critical ecosystems [10]. Problems that  
occur in coastal areas and small islands, among others, occur due  
to conflicts between government agencies (sectorial conflicts);  
conflict because the regional government which has the authority  
is not immediately responsive to solve problems in the field over  
seizure of catchment areas. Likewise, with exploration,  
exploitation, conservation and management of marine resources,  
in practice irregularities have occurred which have resulted in  
Corresponding author: Nuswantoro Dwiwarno, Diponegoro University, Semarang, Indonesia. E-mail:  
Journal of Environmental Treatment Techniques  
2021, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages: 117-121  
of 2014 concerning Amendments to Law No. 27 of 2007. One of  
the reasons for the cancellation of the HP-3 is stated in the dictum  
of consideration of the Court which explicitly states that the  
government's objective in managing coastal areas and small  
islands cannot be carried out/will not be achieved if the  
management scheme is to provide HP-3.  
realize the greatest prosperity of the people.  
In general, this law includes granting the right to the  
community to propose the preparation of a Strategic Plan, a  
Zoning Plan, a Management Plan, and an Action Plan for the  
Management of Coastal Areas and Small Islands; Regulations  
regarding Location Permits and Management Permits for  
Individuals and Customary Law Communities, Local  
Communities, and Traditional Communities who utilize  
resources in coastal areas and small islands; regulating the use of  
small islands and the waters around them; The HP-3 revision  
scheme is not just a change of rights (Coastal Water Concession  
Rights) to a permit (Coastal Water Management Permit), but  
ensures that the permits granted cannot violate 4 things as decided  
by the Constitutional Court.  
Law No. 1 of 2014 does not change all articles concerning  
coastal area management, only changes to articles related to HP-  
3. The management of coastal areas is mentioned in Article 1  
point 1, namely the Management of Coastal Areas and Small  
Islands is a coordinating planning, utilization, supervision and  
control of coastal resources and small islands carried out by the  
Government and Regional Governments, between sectors,  
between terrestrial and marine ecosystems, as well as between  
science and management to improve people's welfare. This law  
also eliminates the meaning of HP-3 completely and replaces it  
with a permit. The meaning of license is stated in Article 1  
number 18 and 18A, specifying that Location Permit and  
Management Permit. The Location Permit is a permit granted to  
utilize the space of a portion of coastal waters covering sea level  
and water column up to sea level at a certain extent and/or to take  
advantage of a part of small islands. Furthermore, it is specified  
that Management Permit is a permit granted to carry out activities  
to utilize the resources of coastal waters and waters of small  
This provision is reaffirmed in Article 16 paragraph (1) and  
paragraph (2) which states that every person who will carry out  
spatial utilization of part of the coastal waters and partially  
exploiting small islands is obliged to have a location permit. (2)  
Location Permit as referred to in paragraph (1) shall be the basis  
for granting Management Permits, which are granted by the  
Minister, Governor or Regent/mayor according to their respective  
authorities, based on zoning plans, the interest of preserving  
coastal ecosystems and small islands, traditional fishing  
communities and national interests. This location permit is  
exempted or cannot be granted in the core zone in conservation  
areas, sea lanes, port areas, and public beaches. Article 20 states  
that the Government and Regional Governments are obliged to  
facilitate the granting of Location Permits and Management  
Permits to Local Communities and Traditional Communities, as  
well as determine the requirements, procedures for granting,  
revocation, period, area, and expiration of Location Permits and  
Management Permits regulated by Government Regulation.  
The provisions of the obligation to obtain a permit before  
utilizing space are exempted for customary law communities,  
because this permit falls under the authority of the local  
Customary Law Community. Even so, in the utilization of space  
and resources of coastal waters and waters of small islands by the  
customary law community must consider the national interest and  
in accordance with the provisions of laws and regulations.  
Another thing that is different from Law No. 27 of 2007 is the  
definition of society, including those of traditional communities,  
which previously this definition was separated separately in Law  
On this basis, the government issued a legal policy by  
enacting Law No. 1 of 2014 as an amendment to Law No. 27 of  
007 concerning Management of Coastal Areas and Small Islands  
which are considered not to side with fishing communities.  
However, whether the enactment of Law No. 1 of 2014 can  
guarantee that the rights of fishing communities will be  
accommodated, if only looking at the issue of management rights  
changing to permits only. Another problem is related to  
harmonization and synchronization with several previous  
legislations that have been enforced [16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21]. This  
research was conducted to analyze the sustainability management  
in coastal waters and development planning of small islands to  
ensure environmental justice for fishermen communities with  
special reference to Law No. 1 of 2014 regarding the Management  
of Coastal Areas and Small Islands. This study also wants to  
analyze the obstacles in the implementation of Law No. 1 of 2014  
regarding Management of Coastal Areas and Small Islands.  
Legal Norms for Spatial Planning of Coastal  
The implementation of HP-3 as regulated in Law No. 27 of  
007 has received many rejections because crucially HP-3  
violates the constitution, where the rights of fishing communities  
on the coast are neglected by HP-3. These rights are (1) the rights  
of fishing communities to access resources on the coast; (2) the  
right to manage/utilize resources; (3) the right to manage  
resources according to traditions and beliefs/local wisdom and (4)  
the right to get a clean coastal environment. The four rights are  
inherent in the traditional fishing community and cannot be  
exchanged for overthrow. Management of Coastal Zone and  
Small Islands through the mechanism of granting HP-3 actually  
reduces the state's control over the Management of Coastal Zone  
and Small Islands. Through its decision Number 3/PUU-  
VIII/2010, the Constitutional Court cancelled the implementation  
of HP-3 as regulated by Law No. 27 of 2007 because it contradicts  
the 1945 Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia.  
The politics of law of Law No. 1 of 2014 is evident in the  
preamble which states that the basis for the consideration of the  
issuance of this law is that the state is given the mandate of the  
945 Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia to control coastal  
areas and small islands to be used maximally for the welfare of  
the people [22, 23]. In addition, it also states that the state  
recognizes and respects indigenous peoples and their traditional  
rights as long as they are still alive and in accordance with  
community development and the principles of the Constitution,  
which are regulated in law [8, 19, 24]. The meaning of this  
provision, state recognition and respect for customary law  
communities and their traditional rights becomes the spirit in the  
management of coastal areas. Likewise, the purpose of the  
stipulation of this law as an amendment to the old law, it is clearly  
stated in Article 33 paragraph (3) and paragraph (4) of this  
preamble, which in essence is the right to control the state over  
the land, water and natural resources contained therein for used in  
economic activities based on economic democracy in order to  
Journal of Environmental Treatment Techniques  
2021, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages: 117-121  
No. 27 of 2007. Based on these general provisions, the state  
through this law recognizes the existence of traditional  
communities along with Traditional rights that are still alive in a  
certain area are part of the community's understanding that needs  
to be considered in their involvement in coastal management. The  
difference between the politics of law in Law No. 1 of 2014 and  
the previous law is the obligation to involve the community in the  
preparation of the Strategic Plan; Zoning Plan; Management Plan  
and Action Plan for the Management of Coastal Zone and Small  
Islands, as stated in Article 14 paragraph (1) and paragraph (2).  
Community involvement (customary law communities, local  
communities and traditional communities) in the preparation of a  
coastal area management plan is a new norm that was previously  
ignored in Law No. 27 of 2007. Community involvement in the  
process of compiling strategic plans, management plans and in  
coastal area management action plans. It is hoped that the state  
really accommodates and pays attention to and protects  
community units and their traditional rights, so that they are not  
reckless and bump into or ignore their existence when the  
government issues coastal management permits to individuals or  
and encouraging community initiatives in the management  
of coastal resources and small islands in order to achieve  
justice, balance and sustainability  
This goal, however, is not realized by the government through  
the HP-3 scheme. Even though Law No. 1 of 2014 has changed  
the concept of HP-3 into licensing, in practice its implementation  
is still experiencing obstacles due to the substance of the law and  
its linkages with the authorities of other institutions, resulting in  
overlapping legal regulations; dualism of arrangements for  
aspects of the same object arrangement as well as institutional  
authority and others.  
Some of the problems become obstacles to implementation.  
From the legal aspect, the problem of implementing dualism of  
Management Permits and Concession Permits in Coastal Spaces  
is based on Law No. 1 of 2014 and Government Regulation  
Number 36 of 2010 concerning Natural Tourism Exploitation.  
Article 19 paragraph (1) of Law No. 1 of 2014 concerning  
provisions for management permits and concession permits in  
coastal areas conflicts with Article 8 of Government Regulation  
Number 36 of 2010. The licensing mechanism in two different  
ministries is still valid. This of course has the potential for  
inefficiency in bureaucratic management and also has  
implications for high costs.  
Dualism of Regional Regulations on Spatial Planning and  
Zoning Plans for Coastal Areas and Small Islands. According to  
Article 9 paragraph (5) of Law No. 27 of 2007, the Zoning Plans  
is stipulated by a Regional Regulation. Meanwhile Article 24  
paragraph (1) of Law No. 26 Of 2007 explains that detailed spatial  
planning is also stipulated by Regional Regulation. The Spatial  
Planning rules regulate relatively the same things but at the  
technical level two different Regional Regulations must be issued.  
Legal certainty conflicts of authority Planning and granting  
location permits and management permits based on Law No. 1 of  
Thus, the legal politics of Law No. 1 of 2014 essentially  
eliminates the legal norms regarding HP-3 as regulated in Law 27  
of 2007 and replaces them with location permit mechanisms and  
management permits. However, the political legal construction of  
this law is not just a change of rights (HP-3) to a permit (Coastal  
Water Management Permit), but ensures that the permits granted  
cannot violate the rights of fishing communities as mentioned  
above, which are decided by the Court Constitution.  
Implementation of Sustainability Management  
of Coastal Areas and Small Island  
Law No. 1 of 2014 as an amendment from Law No. 27 of  
007 contains the main points determined by the Constitutional  
014 and Law No. 23 of 2014. The legal norms of the two laws  
Court, because the nature of the decision is binding. Apart from  
that, it is also a form of state responsibility to provide protection  
with the principle of social justice as referred to in the fourth  
paragraph of the Preamble to the Constitution and Article 33  
paragraph (4) of the 1945 Constitution. Several changes in norms  
in Law No. 1 of 2014 include:  
have differences in planning institutions as well as issuing  
permits. In Article 14 and Article 50 paragraph (3) of Law No. 1  
of 2014 the authority rests with the regional government  
province and district/city) to manage the coast and small islands  
comprehensively. On the other hand, Article 27 of Law No. 23 of  
014 has the authority only in provincial areas to manage natural  
resources in the sea in their territory. The inconsistency between  
Law No. 1 of 2014 and Law No. 23 of 2014 has resulted in unclear  
authority in issuing location permits and resource management  
permits in marine areas, as well as unclear division of functions  
and roles between the Provincial Government and District/City  
Governments in resource management the coast.  
Legal certainty for foreign investment licensing based on Law  
No. 1 of 2014 with Law No. 25 of 2007. Article 26A paragraph  
1) of Law No. 1 of 2014, the use of small islands and the use of  
the surrounding waters for investment foreigners must obtain the  
Minister's permission. On the other hand, Article 26A paragraph  
5) relates to investment for investment in small islands, outlines  
that specifically for the gradual transfer of shares to Indonesian  
participants and land area with due regard to ecological, social  
and economic aspects is mandated to be stipulated through a  
Presidential Regulation. The conflict that occurs in this case is  
legal regulations related to business permits in the framework of  
foreign investation in small islands. In this case, there are two  
agencies authorized to issue permits, namely the Ministry of  
Marine Affairs and Fisheries as referred to in Article 26A  
The involvement of fishing communities in the  
management of coastal waters which results in the  
emergence of indirect discrimination  
Equity and management in the utilization of coastal space  
by fishing communities  
The holder of a coastal water’s management permit may not  
lose the rights of traditional fishing communities and local  
wisdom on coastal areas because it is contrary to the  
concept of customary rights and traditional rights of the  
people which cannot be limited because they can be enjoyed  
from generation to generation (just saving principle).  
As a form of the government's political will to realize the  
ideal goals for managing coastal areas and small islands,  
including to protect, conserve, rehabilitate, utilize, and  
enrich coastal resources and small islands and their  
ecological systems in a sustainable manner; to create  
harmony and synergy between the Government and  
Regional Governments in the management of coastal  
resources and small islands; and, to strengthen the  
participation of the community and government institutions  
Journal of Environmental Treatment Techniques  
2021, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages: 117-121  
paragraph (1) of Law No. 1 of 2014; as well as the Ministry of  
Trade based on Law No. 25 of 2007 and Presidential Regulation  
No. 36 of 2010 concerning the Limitation of Closed Business  
Fields and Open Business Sectors.  
and restrict the freedom of access to coastal community resources.  
The fact is that not all coastal communities are able to obtain  
permits, because most coastal communities are in fact unable,  
economically, socially and politically. They do not have equal  
power when compared to the owners of capital.  
Provisions for the transfer of shares as referred to in Article  
6 paragraph (5) of Law No. 1 of 2014 are not in sync with Law  
Article 21 and Article 22 of Law No. 1 of 2014 provide  
protection for customary law communities, namely exemption  
from the obligation to have permits, both location permits and  
management permits. The substance of Article 21 suggests that  
there are multilevel requirements, namely to give freedom to  
indigenous peoples to manage their livelihood spaces, but it  
clashes with the phrase “considering national interests and  
recognition of legal status based on statutory regulations”. The  
Coastal Law does not define the definition of national interest.  
This condition is very potential to expel indigenous peoples from  
their territory or living space on the coast if they do not receive  
recognition of the legal status of indigenous peoples by the  
No. 25 of 2007 concerning Investment. The problem that occurs  
in this context is the dualism of legal rules and institutional  
authority in licensing investment in these small islands which will  
cause problems, namely legal uncertainty for investors.  
As a consequence, these legal uncertainties bring back the  
privatization of the control of part of the coastal area by private  
companies owned by Indonesian citizens/foreigners, which  
means that it will be contrary to Article 22A of Law No. 1 of 2014,  
namely subjects that are allowed to manage coastal areas.  
From the institutional aspect, there is a conflict of authority  
of the institution which has the right to grant and revoke location  
permits and management permits as a result of the dualism of  
legal regulations governing permits as stated in Article 14  
paragraph (1); (2) and (4); Article 50 paragraph (4) of Law No. 1  
of 2014 with Article 27 paragraph (1); (2); (3) Law No. 23 of  
Indonesia has made substantial changes in last decades to  
014. Moreover, Law No. 1 of 2014 still gives authority to the  
legally increase the capacity for environmental protection in  
coastal waters, and to improve spatial management to provide  
wider environmental access and rights to local residents. This  
change is to protect environmental sustainability and  
development in the coastal areas and outer islands. Law No. 1 of  
Regional Government/Regent/Mayor to be given the right to issue  
and revoke location permits and management permits in  
accordance with their respective powers. Meanwhile, Article 27  
paragraph (1); (2); (4) Law No. 23 of 2014, authority is only given  
to provinces. The regulation of different legal norms based on  
these two laws results in legal uncertainty over which institution  
has the right to compile a management plan in coastal areas and  
who can legally grant location permits and management permits.  
Then, the institutional conflict in managing water  
conservation, based on Article 78A of Law No.1 of 2014,  
Conservation Areas in Coastal Areas and Small Islands which  
have been established through statutory regulations before this  
Law comes into effect are under the authority of the Minister of  
Marine Affairs and Fisheries. However, until now the  
conservation area as mentioned above is still under the  
management of the Ministry of Environment and Forestry on the  
basis of the authority granted by Law No. 5 of 1990 concerning  
Conservation of Living Natural Resources and their Ecosystems.  
Lastly, from the legal service aspects and community  
involvement in location permits and management permits. Article  
2014 concerning Management of Coastal Areas and Small Islands  
is a change in the government's legal politics in the management  
of coastal waters. However, this law does not change all articles  
concerning coastal area management, only removes articles  
related to HP-3 which are regulated in Law 27 of 2007 and  
replaces it with the Coastal Water Management Permit  
mechanism. The coastal waters management scheme according to  
the law is carried out through the mechanism of location permits  
and management permits and requires that the permits granted  
must not violate 4 things as decided by the Constitutional Court.  
In addition, in this law, the government grants the community the  
right to propose the preparation of a Strategic Plan, a Zoning Plan,  
a Management Plan, and an Action Plan for the Management of  
Coastal Areas and Small Islands.  
In practice, the implementation of Law No. 1 Of 2014 has  
experienced many obstacles, especially synchronization with  
other legal regulations that were earlier in effect, causing the  
problem of legal uncertainty over the implementation of this law.  
Some of the problems that become obstacles to its implementation  
include, first, the legal aspects of dualism of management permits  
and concessions in coastal spaces based on Law No. 1 of 2014  
and Government Regulation Number 36 of 2010 concerning  
Natural Tourism Exploitation. Then also the dualism of the  
Regional Regulation on Spatial Planning and Regional Planning  
and the Zoning Plan for Coastal Areas and Small Islands. Second,  
from the institutional aspect there is a conflict of authority over  
the institution which has the right to grant and revoke location  
permits and management permits; Conflict in the authority of  
planning and granting location permits and management permits  
as a result of the dualism of legal regulations of Law No. 1 of  
6 Paragraph (1) of Law No. 1 of 2014, clearly stated that anyone  
who uses space from part of the coastal waters and utilizes part of  
small islands permanently is required to have a location permit.  
The phrase "Everyone", means that including local communities  
and traditional communities, they still have to take care of  
location permits and management permits when they are going to  
carry out economic activities in coastal waters even though these  
activities are intended to fulfill their daily needs. This norm needs  
to be changed, because the Government can be considered as  
allowing competition between local communities; traditional  
communities with entrepreneurs/investors whose conditions are  
different both in terms of access to capital, technology and  
knowledge. This has led to unclear licensing procedures, the  
division of authority between the central and regional  
governments so that it is predicted that it will hamper investment.  
Referring to Article 71 Paragraph (1) of Law No. 1 of 2014  
states that the utilization of coastal water resources that are not in  
accordance with the location permit, as Article 16 Paragraph (1)  
is subject to administrative sanctions, will potentially criminalize  
2014 with Law No. 23 of 2014; water conservation management  
institutional conflicts. Third, the aspect of legal services and  
community involvement in location permits and management  
permits, as if the government has allowed the struggle for coastal  
waters management between traditional fishing communities and  
Journal of Environmental Treatment Techniques  
2021, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages: 117-121  
investors who own capital.  
in Indonesia Reviewed from the Benefits of People's Welfare. In 3rd  
International Conference on Globalization of Law and Local Wisdom  
ICGLOW 2019). Atlantis Press.  
0. Evans, S. M., Gill, M. E., Retraubun, A. S. W., Abrahamz, J., &  
Dangeubun, J. (1997). Traditional management practices and the  
conservation of the gastropod (Trochus nilitocus) and fish stocks in  
the Maluku Province (eastern Indonesia). Fisheries Research, 31(1-  
2), 83-91.  
1. Ferrol-Schulte, D., Gorris, P., Baitoningsih, W., Adhuri, D. S., &  
Ferse, S. C. (2015). Coastal livelihood vulnerability to marine  
resource degradation: A review of the Indonesian national coastal and  
marine policy framework. Marine Policy, 52, 163-171.  
The government needs to supervise and if necessary form a  
task force to monitor the regional government in granting location  
permits and management permits based on 4 matters of the  
Constitutional Court decisions, namely (1) the rights of fishing  
communities to access coastal resources; (2) the right to  
manage/utilize resources; (3) the right to manage resources  
according to traditions and beliefs/local wisdom and (4) the right  
to get a clean coastal environment. The government needs to  
immediately synchronize and harmonize several legal regulations  
related to their enactment with Law No. 1 of 2014, so that there is  
no overlap in the legal aspects, institutional authority as a result  
of dualism of governing legal regulations. If deemed necessary,  
change the legal norm of one of the legal regulations according to  
the authority of each institution. Several articles in Law No. 1 of  
2. Baum, G., Kusumanti, I., Breckwoldt, A., Ferse, S. C., Glaser, M.,  
Adrianto, L., ...  
investigating marine resource-based livelihoods in Jakarta Bay and  
the Thousand Islands. Marine pollution bulletin, 110(2), 778-789.  
& Kunzmann, A. (2016). Under pressure:  
13. Lumbanraja, A.D., Musyafah, A.A., Saraswati, R., Indreswari, T.L.  
2020). The effect of gpa igr-4 on indonesian government policy on  
marine litter. AACL Bioflux 13(3), 1758-1763  
4. Gorris, P. (2016). Deconstructing the reality of community-based  
management of marine resources in a small island context in  
Indonesia. Frontiers in Marine Science, 3, 120.  
5. Nurhidayah, L. (2010). Toward Integrated Coastal Zone Management  
in Indonesia: Framework Assessment and Comparative Analysis.  
Indonesian Institute of Sciences (United Nations-Japan Foundation  
Fellowship program.  
6. Waddell, S. (2009). Rising to the challenge of providing legal  
protection for the Indonesian coastal and marine environment.  
Indonesia Beyond the Water’s Edge: Managing an Archipelagic  
State, eds R. Cribb and M. Ford (Singapore: Institute of Southeast  
Asian Studies (ISEAS)), 172-194.  
17. Prescott, J., Riwu, J., Steenbergen, D. J., & Stacey, N. (2015).  
Governance and governability: the small-scale purse seine fishery in  
Pulau Rote, eastern Indonesia. In Interactive Governance for Small-  
scale Fisheries (pp. 61-84). Springer, Cham.  
014, especially the issue of the obligation to obtain permits for  
traditional fishing communities, the authority to grant and revoke  
permits between local and central governments based on Law No.  
3 of 2014.  
Ethical issue  
Authors are aware of, and comply with, best practice in  
publication ethics specifically with regard to authorship  
avoidance of guest authorship), dual submission, manipulation  
of figures, competing interests and compliance with policies on  
research ethics. Authors adhere to publication requirements that  
submitted work is original and has not been published elsewhere  
in any language.  
8. van Nimwegen, P. (2017). Shifting waters-Indonesia's dynamic  
marine protected area policy seascape (Doctoral dissertation,  
Murdoch University).  
Competing interests  
The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest that  
would prejudice the impartiality of this scientific work.  
19. Dirhamsyah, D. (2006). Indonesian legislative framework for coastal  
resources management: a critical review and recommendation. Ocean  
coastal management, 49(1-2), 68-92.  
Authors’ contribution  
All authors of this study have a complete contribution for data  
collection, data analyses and manuscript writing.  
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Effectivity Study of Legal Politics of Sea Reclamation Development