Journal of Environmental Treatment Techniques  
2021, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages: 296-304  
J. Environ. Treat. Tech.  
ISSN: 2309-1185  
Journal web link:  
Sustainable Management Modeling of Mangrove  
Ecosystem to Support the Local Economy in Small  
Islands, South Sulawesi Indonesia  
Amal ARFAN , Wahidah SANUSI1 , Muhammad RAKIB , Nur Anny Suryaningsih  
TUUFIEQ , Nur Fatimah BASRAM  
Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Negeri Makassar, Indonesia  
Faculty of Economic, Universitas Negeri Makassar, Indonesia  
Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Negeri Makassar, Indonesia  
Received: 19/09/2020  
Accepted: 22/11/2020  
Published: 20/03/2021  
The model starts with the formation of groups of fishermen/farmers /mangroves/women. The group produces something from  
mangrove forest that comes from creativity and ability to create something new as well as utilizing their members based on their  
abilities. After the formation of productive, creative and innovative groups of fishermen/ farmers / mangroves, the values are assessed  
and provided some benefits. Before going to the next stage, reflection on the groups formed is under the goals and objectives of the  
group formation. After reflection, it conducts a study of the suitability of the business sector that is carried out in the mangrove forest  
area. The suitability of the business sector must be based on environmentally friendly systems and mangrove conservation. It is called  
cultivation with the silvofishery system (integrating shrimp/fish cultivation with mangroves) and the use of environmentally friendly  
fishing tools. The next step is to formulate academic methods, then lay down the urgency and management paradigm of putting  
something important and the main patterns and models in the management of mangrove forests. After that phase, fixing management  
problems of mangrove forest. Mangrove forest management involves local communities and other stakeholders meanwhile the  
government, in this case, acting as a motivator and facilitator because of its understanding of the A. formosa growth and dynamics in  
the tropical coral reef ecosystems.  
Keywords: Community; Mangrove ecosystem; Modelling; Small islands; Sustainable management  
and subtropical latitudes [15]. Mangrove forest has high  
adaptability, to survive extreme tidal conditions [16], high  
temperature [17], high salinity [18] and tropical storms [19].  
As a result, mangrove forest forms productive ecosystems  
Mangrove is one of the marine ecosystems which has the  
most productive ecological function of the earth because it  
provides a unique habitat for a variety of species [1].  
Mangrove forest provides essential services throughout the  
world including goods and services which are important for  
[20, 21]. As one of the biggest archipelago countries,  
Indonesia has massive potential in marine resources. This  
biggest asset can be applied to enhance the Indonesian’s life  
quality. One of the marine sources that have massive  
potential is the mangrove ecosystem. It estimated that  
mangrove has value around $ 200.000  $ 900.000 per  
hectare and uses it as a prime livelihood [22]. Furthermore,  
many people rely on their life on mangrove ecosystem  
especially in tropical areas [23]. In addition, mangrove can  
create a habitat in which various species either flora or fauna  
may live there and apply it as shelter and nesting [24-26].  
Mangroves are also important for people, for various  
purposes, including fisheries, agriculture, forestry, material  
sourcing, protection against marine erosion, and typhoons,  
absorption of pollution, as well as to support the fishing  
industry, coastal, nursery habitat, spawning and breeding for  
birds, mammals, fish, crustaceans, shellfish and reptile [27-  
humans worth US $ 194,000 ha year-1 [2, 3]. Mangrove forest  
ha many functions and benefits which plays an important role  
in the occupant's life for biological, ecological, physical and  
socioeconomic [4-8]. Mangrove area as a protected area used  
to be a source of raw materials for the daily life of local  
people that can serve as a tourism facility, a cultural and  
spiritual identity, and provide ecological services to the  
surrounding environment [9-14]. Generally grow in wet soil,  
saltwater and periodically submerged by tidal currents along  
the coast are protected, estuaries and river areas in tropical  
Corresponding author: Amal ARFAN, Faculty of  
Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Negeri  
Makassar, Indonesia. E-mail:  
Journal of Environmental Treatment Techniques  
2021, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages: 296-304  
2]. Proper management and utilization of the mangrove  
ecosystem will have a direct impact on the communities  
around the mangrove area. [33] revealed that there are four  
types of suitable management in mangrove forest areas that  
can be directly be benefited concerning the communities such  
as the utilization of mullet fishing, the utilization of  
aquaculture/milkfish ponds and tiger shrimp, the utilization  
of mangrove seeds, and the utilization of mangrove fruit.  
Furthermore, [34] stated that sustainable mangrove forest  
management is the best activity in order to be applied in land  
use and forest products in coastal areas. Good management of  
mangrove forests by prioritizing fast action consisted of  
utilizing opportunities and maintaining strength (growth-  
oriented strategy). In addition, [35] revealed that the  
sustainability status of mangrove ecosystem management is  
largely determined by the quality of the environment. Poor  
environmental quality led by anthropogenic activities will  
affect the entire mangrove ecosystem. Another benefit that  
can also be obtained from the mangrove ecosystem is  
implementing ecotourism. [36] stated that the development of  
mangrove ecotourism from the social aspect can provide  
convenience activities and improving environmental  
conditions as well as welfare while in economic aspects, it  
can create job opportunities and in agribusiness aspect, it can  
support communities to make syrup and chips from  
mangrove fruits. Most people, in order to fulfill their life  
necessity and several other factors, culled the mangrove  
suitable mangrove ecosystem management in order to  
enhance the economic values in several small islands. This  
research took place in some small islands consisting of  
Lakkang Island (Makassar), Pannikiang Island (Barru),  
Tanahkeke Island (Takalar), Bangko-Bangkoang Island  
(Pangkep). The locations can be seen in the following  
figures. The main objective of this study is to determine a  
model for sustainable mangrove forest management in small  
islands in South Sulawesi, Indonesia  
Research Method  
All populations in this study are people aged 20 - 60  
years old who live in the small islands. The sampling  
technique is done by purposive sampling. Village officials,  
heads of fishermen groups and NGOs were also sampled in  
this study. In order to acquire accurate data from all samples,  
a depth interview conducted to obtain information from  
respondents by questioning face to face and using interview  
guidelines. To find out more about the situation, potential and  
specific problem (felt need) of the communities, the  
Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) approach carried out.  
Interview underwent with the relevant agencies, village  
officials, chairman of fishermen groups and NGOs. The data  
collected in this study consists of primary and secondary  
data. Primary data collected from the informants and  
respondents through direct interviews and field observation,  
discussions and FGD (Focus Group Discussion) while the  
secondary data obtained from books and journals. To collect  
the information, on the model of sustainable mangrove forest  
management and economic value in each island, interviews  
were conducted to village administrations, local authorities,  
community leaders and NGOs. Discussions with informal  
groups such as fisherman and farmer groups with a total of  
four meetings were conducted in each island. In Addition,  
some people of these islands who have extensive experience  
of mangrove forest management were also interviewed in-  
depth. Interview, discussion, and FGD (Focus Group  
Discussion) are done with the PRA (Participatory Rural  
Appraisal) approach. Based on the cycle of the PRA phases,  
sequentially, the stages carried out in the Interview,  
discussion and FGD (Focus Group Discussion) focus on:  
The Mangrove forest is also threatened as a result of  
industry and agriculture aquaculture [37], extraction of salt  
[38], heavy metal contamination [39], oil pollution [40, 41].  
Meanwhile, the mangrove forest is contributing to the  
economy that can improve the welfare of the community  
independently and sustainably. Economic assessment of the  
mangrove ecosystems has been carried out in several  
mangrove forests. At the Gulf of Thailand, services are  
provided in the form of fisheries worth US$ 33-110 ha year  
42], Ras Mohammad National Park, Egypt services  
provided in the form of socio-economic services (income,  
employment, etc. worth US$ 91,000ha year [43], in Miani  
Hor Pakistan the services provided were in the form of  
fisheries worth US$ 1,287 ha year [44], Southeast Asia  
services provided were Fisheries, firewood, coastal protection  
worth US$ 239 4,185 ha year [45], Can Gio, Vietnam  
services provided are Fisheries, forest products, aesthetics  
and recreation and climate change mitigation worth US$  
Potential natural resources of mangrove forests and small  
islands that can be utilized  
Priority of management and utilization of mangrove  
forest resources  
Patterns of management and utilization of mangrove  
forests which have been carried out so far by the  
358503 million TEV [46], Sundarbans Reserve Forest,  
Bangladesh / India services provided Wood, fuel wood, wild  
food, cultural services valued at US$ 744,000 year-1 [47],  
Bontang City (Indonesia), the total benefits provided by  
mangrove forests are US$ 351,801.67 year- [48], Sinjai  
The community habits in managing and utilizing each  
type of mangrove forest resources  
Types of fishing gear / equipment used, in the mangrove  
Indonesia) the total value of economic benefits of mangrove  
forest area  
is US$ 1,016,581.04 while the total value of benefits per ha is  
US$ 1,690.12 year [49], Banggai (Indonesia) with  
mangrove forest ecosystem ± 167 ha, has a total economic  
benefit value of 1,969,766.07 year [50]. Based on the facts  
that mangrove ecosystems can bring massive profits not only  
to humans but also to the environment especially for the  
marine environment. This study attempts to create a model of  
Local rules, which apply in the community, regarding the  
management and utilization of mangrove forests  
Possibilities of conflict of interest  
Evaluation and follow-up plans as a result of interviews,  
discussions, and FGD (Focus Group Discussion)