Journal of Environmental Treatment Techniques  
2021, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages: 105-109  
J. Environ. Treat. Tech.  
ISSN: 2309-1185  
Journal web link:  
The Implementation of E-Court in Administrative  
Court to Develop Access to Justice in Indonesia  
Aju Putrijanti , Kadek Cahya Susila Wibawa  
Diponegoro University, Semarang, Indonesia  
Received: 19/08/2020  
Accepted: 19/10/2020  
Published: 20/03/2021  
Administrative Court has an absolute competence to settle administrative disputes. Sustainable Development Goals is a program  
conducted by United Nations with seventeen goals and the aims is no one left behind. The difficulty to get access to justice is one issue of  
SDG’s. This is normative legal research and research data used are secondary data, and data will be analyzed using descriptive analysis.  
Research questions are how the role of administrative court in e-court is, and how access to justice from is administrative court perspectives.  
Development of technology gives benefits also in litigation process, and judiciary systems in Indonesia have implement the use of technology  
into regulations. Judiciary system developed the e-court with aims to increase the public service of judiciary system. Implementation of e-  
court for Administrative Court cannot fully electronically, since there are two processes which cannot implement using the technologies. The  
absolute competence of Administrative Court become broaden, after Law Number 30 Year 2014 of Governance Administration stipulated,  
which gives access to justice become easier for people to protect their rights. The novelty is Administrative Court using hybrid system  
between the conventional and modern system, since dismissal process and preparatory examination should be done before enters the court  
room. The shifting paradigm of administrative law gives more access to justice for justice seeker, because it gives more competence to  
Administrative Court.  
Keywords: Administrative Court, E-court, Access to Justice  
in 2030. The 17 goals are: no poverty, zero hunger, good health  
and wellbeing, quality education, gender quality, clean water and  
sanitation, affordable and clean energy, decent work and  
economic growth, industry innovation and infrastructure, reduced  
inequalities, sustainable cities and communities, responsible  
consumption and production, climate action, life below zero, life  
on land, access to justice and strong institutions, partnership for  
the goals. Quoted from SDG’s Indonesia, that 17 goals are  
classified into 4 (four) pillars i.e. economy, social development,  
environment, law and good governance. Access to justice is a  
classic issue, also in Indonesia, this caused by some reasons,  
namely lack of education, economy, transportation and culture,  
then it’s become a circle of unsolved problems, for period of times  
Supreme Court as the highest Court for 4 (four) judicial  
bodies, had been tried to make a blue print of Supreme Court  
Reformation, and one of the aims is to make modern judiciary.  
Refer to this, and related with SDG’s access to justice and strong  
institutions, the Supreme Court has developed e-court for  
judiciary system and this program has been stipulated in Supreme  
Court Regulation Number 1 Year 2019 of Case Administration  
and Court Electronically, besides they also develop and  
implement Case Information System in every judicial body. This  
is an innovation because public can easily know the process for  
cases, without any difficulties to get the newest information; it is  
transparency and modernization for government in order to  
Indonesia is State Law based on Article Number 1 paragraph  
of Constitution of 1945, this emphasized that government’s  
action in public or private matter due to implementation, should  
be based on regulations. As state law, Indonesia has its own  
characteristic which can be seen from philosophy, nature of  
sovereignty, state organization, and human rights. The historical  
background shows there is shifting implementation of state law,  
it’s become democracy state law not absolute state law, which  
require the role of public and human rights protection, and public  
as subject to make policy [1]. This make consequences that  
government has to guarantee to protection of human rights, while  
people can make lawsuit against government to Administrative  
Court (hereinafter is Court) [2]. The supervision to executive can  
be done by Court for external supervision besides internal  
supervision. Supreme Court is the highest level in judiciary  
system for general court, religious court, military court and  
administrative court, and Constitution Court with absolute  
competence regarding the constitutional review.  
In June 1992 at Rio de Janeiro United Nations started on Earth  
Summit about plan action to build global partnership for  
sustainable development to improve human lives and protect the  
environment, and has transform and develop the Sustainable  
Development Goals, and put 17 goals to implement and achieve  
Corresponding author: Aju Putrijanti, Diponegoro University, Semarang, Indonesia. E-mail: Corresponding Author:  
Journal of Environmental Treatment Techniques  
2021, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages: 105-109  
implement the principle of good governance [3].  
The data will be analyzed in qualitative method with descriptive  
Court is a judiciary body under Supreme Court of Indonesia,  
which has absolute competence to investigate, decide settle the  
administrative dispute between individual and or legal entity  
against government, and demand to cancel the government’s  
decree. Court was established by Law Number 5 Year 1986 of  
Administrative Court and had been twice amendments, followed  
the amendments of Constitution of 1945 regarding the judiciary  
system. Court has an important role in law enforcement of  
administrative law, protect the civil rights, and keep the balance  
condition between public and government while they have to  
implement the regulations to arrange the State.  
Regarding the goals of SDG’s and reformation of judiciary  
system, Court has implemented the e-court based on regulations.  
This study aims to investigate the implementation of e-court in  
administrative court to develop access to justice in Indonesia.  
More specifically, it puts emphasis on the absolute competence of  
Administrative Court after Law Number 30 Year 2014 of  
Governance Administration was stipulated. The purpose of his  
study is to explore the extent to which the access to justice become  
easier for people to protect their rights by highlighting the role of  
Administrative Court in using hybrid system between the  
conventional and modern system.  
Refer to theory of system of law by L. Friedman, it is  
consisting of legal culture, legal substance and legal structure [7].  
The use of IT for court process is brand new for public, it is  
relating with legal culture in system of law. There are 2 (two)  
concepts of court, first the real court it means with building and  
infrastructures, but paperless. Second is the virtual court, there is  
no court building, but judges, parties, lawyers and witnesses can  
have meeting and investigate, using the IT facility, including the  
digital signature and documents checking. In India it was first  
established in New Delhi, but in U.K. they are using hybrid type  
between paperless court and virtual court [8]. The readiness of  
society to accept, implement and use of IT is important to achieve  
the aims. E-litigation in Singapore Judicial Institutions, there are  
some issues arise, i.e. about the budget to improve the quality of  
e-litigation, lack of human resources, security and authentication,  
and modernization of judicial institutions in Indonesia will  
succeed based on simple, speedy and low-cost process [9].  
Legal structure is about the institutions, court administration,  
infrastructures, and judges to improve their competence. Court  
should be openness, transparency, accountable as part of  
principles of good governance. Public wants to know easily and  
fast the process starting when they submit the lawsuit until the  
execution of judge verdict, including the cost. Legal substance  
refers to the regulations of e-court and Court, there should be  
compatibility between related regulations. If there is legal gap, it  
will become problems for public, whereas they are the subject to  
judiciary system.  
Supreme Court has applied the modern information  
technology (IT) as implementation of Law Number 48 Year 2009  
of Judiciary System, aims to improve efficiency and affectivity of  
dispute settlement by reduce the case arrears, but there is no  
decrease in number significant during the time 1986 until 2007,  
implementation of IT not been used maximized to improve the  
court’s performance, because IT used only to register the cases  
[10]. Based on the above research, Supreme Court trying to  
improve and maximize the use of IT and application e-court for  
general court, religious court, military court and administrative  
court. Supreme Court Number 3 Year 2018 of Electronic Case  
Administration was the first regulation about use of IT but only  
for case administration. Improvement has made in Supreme Court  
Regulation Number 1 Year 2019 of Case Administration and  
Court Electronically which added the court electronically and  
some important points related.  
This study is a qualitative study with the aim of analyzing and  
investigating the hybrid system between the conventional and  
modern system and the absolute competence of Administrative  
Court after Law Number 30 Year 2014 of Governance  
Administration. Qualitative research is research that intends to  
understand the phenomena experienced by research subjects such  
as behavior, perception, motivation, action, etc. in a holistic  
manner, and by means of description in the form of words and  
language, in a specific natural context and by making use of  
various natural methods [4]. This is a normative research, which  
use conceptual, statute and comparative approach. The normative  
method is in this study the normative method is used to analyze  
the Administrative Court after Law Number 30 Year 2014 of  
Governance Administration. The conceptual model is  
representation of a system composed of a composition of concepts  
that are used to help know, understand, or simulate a particular  
subject. A conceptual approach is a type of approach in legal  
research that provides an analysis point of view of problem  
solving in legal research seen from the aspects of the legal  
concepts behind it, or can even be seen from the values contained  
in normalizing a regulation in relation to the concepts the concept  
used [5].  
As for comparative research, it is a kind of descriptive  
research that seeks to find answers fundamentally about cause and  
effect, by analyzing the factors that cause the occurrence or  
appearance of a particular phenomenon [6]. In this study,  
conceptual methods were used to explore hybrid systems in the  
Administrative Court after Law Number 30 Year 2014 of  
Governance Administration, whereas the comparative method is  
used to assess conventional and modern systems in hybrid  
systems in the Administrative Court after Law Number 30 Year  
In the explanation of Supreme Court Regulation Number 1  
Year 2019 of Case Administration and Court Electronically,  
stated that this is based on Article Number 2 of Law Number 48  
Year 2009 of Judiciary System and to renew the previous  
Supreme Court Regulation Number 3 Year 2018 of Court  
Administration. This Supreme Court Regulation Number 1 Year  
2019 of Case Administration and Court Electronically, aims to  
simplify the process of lawsuit, reduce cost of proceed, become  
easy to access to justice.  
014 of Governance Administration. The primary data are related  
In Supreme Court Regulation Number 1 Year 2019 of Case  
Administration and Court Electronically implement in general  
court (private law), religious court, administrative court and  
military court. E-court process starts from e-filling, where the  
register user and other user while they should fulfill the  
regulations in the Administrative Court after Law Number 30  
Year 2014 of Governance Administration, and the secondary data  
are journals, research results related to the Administrative Court  
after Law Number 30 Year 2014 of Governance Administration.  
Journal of Environmental Treatment Techniques  
2021, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages: 105-109  
requirements for each user. The next process is e-payment to pay  
the advance money, e-summons is information to all parties, and  
the last is e-litigation is the online litigation.  
means that the process refers to Law Number 5 Year 1986 of  
Administrative Court and its amendments.  
Article 15 of Supreme Court Regulation Number 1 Year 2019  
of Case Administration and Court Electronically stated that  
information to all parties given electronically based on their  
agreement and defendant’s approval not required for Court and  
emphasized in Article 20. Before the electronically court begin,  
judge should give information to parties about their rights and  
duties during the court. The judge will give court calendar to  
parties through Court Information System, all the supported  
documents must be given to judge at exact time as scheduled, then  
judge will give those documents to other parties, when parties  
does not give the documents without any legal reason, it is  
considered that they do not use their rights properly. The third  
party may join the court by make plea of intervention letter and  
commit to follow the court electronically, but when they refuse,  
then judge will not accept the plea.  
Access to justice is rights to everyone have their voice to be  
heard, rights to vote, rights to be treated non-discrimination  
against race, religion, nation, equal rights. There are many  
opinions about the meaning of access to justice, depends on the  
point of view, but still some common understanding about access  
to justice. UN has program to help, assist the country which has  
difficulties to eliminate, decrease the factors caused obstruction  
to access to justice. Access to justice is about good life, it’s about  
accessing equality, education, food, security, good laws,  
courtroom, judges, etc. it’s about ultimately the point, besides  
understanding, education, prevention to accessible and effective  
justice [12]. The problems related to courtroom and infrastructure  
looks is the primary obstacle, the legal system should be well  
informed to parties and lawyers.  
Evidentiary process follows procedural law for each court, it  
is clearly understood that there is different procedural law also for  
rules of evidence. If parties agree for evidentiary process using  
the teleconference or any kind of audio-visual communication  
types that makes possible for everyone to see and follow the  
process. The use of written documents starts in Article 22,  
included letter of evidence electronically. In the regular court  
process, the evidentiary process is important, because judges and  
parties will check the originality of documents, asking questions  
to witnesses. If parties do not agree to have evidentiary process  
using audio visual communication or teleconference, then it can  
be done using regular or conventional process, the judges, parties  
and witnesses will come physically to the court room. It shows  
that Supreme Court follows the development of information  
technology and adopt into the court electronically, certainly  
follows with regulations that is allow using regular or  
conventional process, in order to give access to justice more easily  
to whomsoever needs.  
Based on Law Number 5 Year 1986 of Administrative Court,  
there are 2 (two) process as particular process in Court before  
enter the court room, i.e. Dismissal Process (vide Article 62) and  
Preparatory Examination (vide Article 63). In Supreme Court  
Regulation Number 1 Year 2019 of Case Administration and  
Court Electronically there is no regulations for the particular  
process and it is not possible to erase those process. However, the  
principle lex specialis derogat legi generali is implementing due  
to this regulations, Act Number 5 Year 1986 of Administrative  
Court override the Supreme Court Regulation Number 1 Year  
Discrimination and inequality of gender, is annoying and  
injuring the human rights, disability for those with low income to  
get the legal aid also barrier to access to justice [13]. It is also  
challenge to provide regulations for gender, disability and low  
income to get their rights properly. Principle of no discrimination  
should be upholding, for disability, government should prepare a  
specific tool to make lawsuit or any kind relates with judicial  
process, so does for gender, there should be a friendly regulation.  
Lawyers needs to conceptualizing access to justice, to explore and  
to expand visions of the role’s lawyers, cooperation with other  
disciplines to achieve equal access to justice [14]. In the U.S. they  
have used the modern information technology to increase the  
legal-aid services. Access to justice and legal information has  
grown highly, especially for low-income person. Statewide  
broaden their legal-aid, where providers cooperate with legal  
advisors’ organization to give assistance of their legal problems.  
Even though government has made collaboration with providers,  
legal professional organizations, there is still difficult to reach the  
low-income people. Technology also helps disabilities to fulfill  
their rights, meaning access to courtroom and legal-aid [15].  
The report made by Organization for Economic Cooperation  
and Development [16] gives information about new technology  
may revolutionize legal services for next decades, some countries  
put judicial services via