Journal of Environmental Treatment Techniques  
2021, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages: 172-177  
J. Environ. Treat. Tech.  
ISSN: 2309-1185  
Journal web link: http://www.jett.dormaj.com  
https://doi.org/10.47277/JETT/9(1)183  
Verification of the Effect of Raw Materials Mill Dust  
on Soil Stabilization: An Experimental Study  
1
*
2
1
Fatima Alsaleh , Feras Al Adday , Ahmed Al-Abu Hussein  
1
Department of Transportation Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Aleppo,  
2
Middle East University, Amman, Jordan  
Received: 26/07/2020  
Accepted: 21/10/2020  
Published: 20/03/2021  
Abstract  
Cement plants produce large quantities of dust, which is an important source of pollution. Among these pollutants is raw materials mill  
dust (RMMD), it is a dust produced during the grinding of raw materials. RMMD differs in chemical composition from cement kiln dust  
(
CKD), where CKD is a by-product that collects in the electrostatic filters of a cement kiln. A lot of studies have been done around the world  
to find effective ways to recycle CKD and use it again in soil stabilization to avoid the failure of the entire pavement in the future as well as  
an economical and environmental solution, while there is a dearth of research done on RMMD. In this study, the performance of a weak  
subgrade for one of the sites in Aleppo city was examined, where its physical and mechanical properties (plasticity index, maximum dry  
density, optimum water content, and California bearing ratio (CBR)), were determined. Then RMMD was added to the subgrade samples  
according to five ratios 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20% of the dry weight of the soil. The research concluded that adding the RMMD to the weak  
subgrade by 20% of its dry weight is the optimal ratio, improved its performance, as the plasticity index decreased by 13%, and the CBR  
increased up to 63 %. Thus, the bearing capacity increases, it saves costs and reduces future pavement maintenance.  
Keywords: Soil Stabilization, Weak Soil, Mill Dust, Chemical additive  
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which the bearing capacity is enhanced by compaction of the soil  
1
Introduction  
to a sufficient degree, or by means of piles or application of an  
external load on the soil or the use of good drainage of water, or  
stone columns [15, 16]. The second technique is chemical  
stabilization of soil by a chemical reaction between weak soils  
and the added active substance [17, 18]. Among these materials  
are lime, gypsum, cement, asphalt, resin, fly ash, and other  
materials such as industrial or natural wastes such as the CKD and  
rice husk ash [15, 19, 20, 21, 22, and 23]. The common soil  
additives are lime and cement (traditional stabilizers) [24].  
RMMD is of great importance in the field of civil engineering and  
its projects, and one of these uses is to improve weak soils. The  
flying dust is captured and collected from the raw material mill of  
the cement factory in Hama, Syria through two types of filters,  
Electrostatic and Baghouse Filters as well as for the dust flying  
throughout the entire manufacturing process of cement.  
RMMD has been chosen as a weak soil stabilizer for several  
reasons, the most important of which is its large quantities and it  
is being a completely new material in this topic of soil  
stabilization in road pavement. The fact that the total quantity of  
the electric filter of the raw material mill is large when compared  
to the Baghouse filter, the research has focused on studying its  
effect on soil performance.  
The great growth in modern buildings imposed the need for  
lands with good bearing capacity to safely withstand high  
pressures [1]. One of the important issues facing the pavement  
engineer is to provide economically viable layer thicknesses that  
are compatible with the site's soil characteristics [2, 3]. The  
general case is the lack of alternative design solutions to avoid  
weak soils, hence it is necessary to search for low-cost  
experimental alternatives [4, 5]. The weak soil has the high  
compressibility, poor shear strength, high ratio of moisture, low  
workability, which produces extra settlements of soil, and this  
makes the construction process on such soils a high probability  
issue [6]. For road pavements, soil properties have a major  
influence in determining the thickness of the layers above [7].  
Thus, road performance and service are greatly influenced by the  
stability and stiffness of the subgrade [8, 9]. Consequently, these  
soil must be stabilized or treated to increase in its geotechnical  
characteristics. the term soil stabilization is a technique in which  
weak soil properties are improved to fulfil its functions  
(
operational conditions of the road and the subsequent volumetric  
changes of soil) as the foundation for the structures based on it  
10, 11, 12, 13]. There are two techniques that are widely used for  
soil stabilization [14]. The first method is a mechanical method in  
[
Corresponding author: Fatima Alsaleh, Department of Transportation Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Aleppo. E-  
mail: falkhalil@meu.edu.jo  
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