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In press


Note to users: Articles in Press are peer reviewed, accepted articles to be published in this journal. When the final article is assigned to volumes/issues of the publication, the Article in Press version will be removed and the final version will appear in the associated published volumes/issues of the publication. The date an article was first made available online will be carried over. Please be aware that, although Articles in Press do not have all bibliographic details available yet, they can already be cited using the year of online publication, as follows: author(s), article title, Journal (year).





Analysis of Windows Element for Energy Saving in a Tropical Residential Buildings in Order to Reduce the Negative Environmental Impacts

Aidin Nobahar Sadeghifam, Iman Kiani, Nurul Noraziemah Mohd Pauzi, Saman Mostfapour

Volume 9  |  Issue 1 |  Pages: 1-6 | PDF | HTML   


Abstract: In the contemporary milieu of today, sustainability and environmental concerns have become a great subject of debate. Matters related to sustainability are often linked to other crucial concerns like energy consumption. Energy is a key factor in ensuring continuous economic growth and development. One of the highest energy consuming systems in buildings – specifically residential homes in tropical regions – is the air conditioning system. Windows have been identified as the weakest link in the fabric of a building as they serve as thermal holes. Thus, the selection of proper window materials is crucial to reduce energy usage by minimizing the cooling and heating requirements of the building. The aims of this paper are analysis of energy performance for diverse types of window’s glazing with different frames in order to find the most optimized window materials for the tropical residential buildings. The selected case study in this paper is modeled and then simulated by Building Information Modeling (BIM) application, which is appropriate for energy analysis. For simulation, some factors of the window materials were taken into consideration including, four physical properties of the U-factor, solar heat gain coefficient, visible transmittance, and emissivity. The result was shown windows types 02 and 03 were the most optimized of window materials and led to 10% energy saving into the base model and the windows type 05 was high U-factor, results in a greater transfer in internal zones and led to high energy consumption.  


Keywords: Sustainability, Energy, Tropical countries, Residential buildings, Windows, BIM application





An Overview on Major Design Constraints, Impact and Challenges for a Conventional Wastewater Treatment Design

Saidur R Chowdhury, Feras Alhelal, Mohammad Alahmadi, Naif Alqahtani, Abdullah Alkhaldi, Andi Asiz

Volume 9  |  Issue 1 |  Pages: 7-16 | PDF | HTML   


Abstract: The conventional wastewater (WW) treatment plant includes physical, chemical, and biological treatment processes that can protect the receiving water bodies from water pollution. The common design constraints, challenges as well as environmental impact would make the wastewater treatment plant’s (WWTP) construction and operation more complex and demanding tasks. Major project constraints for WW plant design are economic, accessibility, fulfilling technical requirements, institutional set-up, health and environment, personnel capacity, and political commitment etc. Design methodology adopted in the current study included project location, unit selections, the design capacity, design period as well as proximity to the population and layout plan. The present manuscript discussed briefly about effluent quality requirements, design issues, environmental impacts, details, and safety concerns. It also highlighted the necessary flexibility to carry out satisfactorily within the desired range of influent WW characteristics and flows. In the present study, every step of the design was verified with Environmental Regulations and suggested to overcome all constraints while designing WWTPs so that standard operational code for the specific region could be implemented to achieve the best treatment performance. The results obtained from analytical calculation were optimized to achieve the best design parameters for field application. The optimized values also reduce the construction and operation cost during the field application.


Keywords: Wastewater (WW), Challenges, Constraints, Design, Impact, Treatment, Plant





Estimation of Metal Ions in Various Soil Samples in Relation to Crop Production (wheat, mustard, barley) at Different Region of Dehradun India

M. Amin Mir, Muhammad Waqar Ashraf, MMS Jassal, Maythem Mahmud

Volume 9  |  Issue 1 |  Pages: 17-23 | PDF | HTML   


Abstract: Metals in the form of salts or as such have a profound effect on development and growth of crops. Various soil samples at different regions of Dehradun (India) have been analysed analytically for the concentration of various metal ions in relation to the growth and development of wheat, mustard and barley. The various metal ions have been found in a good concentration range at which the concerned crops could show maximum growth and development. The concentration of various salts like phosphate ion as determined spectrophotometrically was found to be in between 0.732 to 1.610, for NO3- the concentration was found in between 0.210 to 0.998 mg/kg, and the concentration of NO22- was found to be 0.138 to 0.475 mg/kg. The metal ions were determined analytically and the concentration of various metals like Pb2+ was found in the range of 0.101 - 0.265 mg/kg, Zn in the range of 0.047 – 0.175 mg/kg, Cu in the range of 0.015 – 0.101 mg/kg and the concentration of Fe was found in the range of 0.120 – 0.462 mg/kg. Na, K, Li and Ba were analysed by flame-photometry and the concentration of Na was found in the range 0.10- 0.47 ppm, K in the range of 0.70 – 2.4 ppm, Li 0.00 – 0.01 ppm and the Ba in the range of 0.00 – 0.03 ppm. Also the data reveals the distributions of heavy metals in the agricultural land of the concerned region and can be used to estimate the risks associated with the consumption of crops grown on such soils. So the soil samples which have been examined can be opted for the production of various crops as the soil samples show a good quality and quantity of various mineral ions. The Dehradun in total bears a good range of forests and soil is rich of various types of mineral salts so could be used for the growth of multiple crops.


Keywords: Metal Ions, Wheat, Mustard, Barley, Flame-photometry, Analytical





Evalouation of Styrene Acrylo Nitrile (SAN), Butadiene Rubber (BR), Nano-silica (Nano SiO2) Blend and Nanocomposite in the Presence of Oxoperoxidant Study

Nooredin Goudarzian, Soheil Samiei, Fatemeh Safari, Seyyed Mojtaba Mousavi, Seyyed Alireza Hashemi, Sargol Mazraedoost

Volume 9  |  Issue 1 |  Pages: 24-32 | PDF | HTML   


Abstract: Polymer-nanosilica composite was prepared using Silica nanoparticles as reinforcing fillers in Styrene Acrylo Nitrile (SAN). Copolymer Styrene Acrylo Nitrile (SAN) is such warm, soft, clear resins that because of having suitable Physical and mechanical properties, have good resistance against chemical also low solvent and cost toward another copolymer styrene that caused to be in a category of much used of them. The effect of increasing nano-silica loadings on the mechanical properties of BR nanocomposites was also studied. Its defect is its fragility that, with its alloying with Butadiene Rubber, prevents its fragility. Basically, with adding inorganic Nano bits, changed strength and modulus of elasticity of plastics while increasing Nano bits decrease the strength of the hit. In this study, copolymer Styrene Acrylo Nitrile considered as a matrix and for increasing mechanical qualities used Nano bits silica diacid. Results of automated tests (XRD), (TGA), (HDT), and (SEM) were a sign of improvement of mechanical and thermal qualities. Nowadays, due to using lots of plastics in various industries, this probability exists that destroyed whit being exposed to direct solar radiation. So light destroyed plastics are very important. In this project whit using Oxoperoxidant blend prepared with the ability of light destruction, so that after one and three months, results show to destroy its lights.


Keyword: Permeability, Oxoperoxidant, Styrene Acrylo Nitrile, Degradation





Analysing the Influence of Perceived Scarcity, Negative Feelings, and Status Consumption on Food Waste Among Consumers

 Muhamad Azrin Nazri, Nor Asiah Omar, Suhaily Mohd Ramly, Siti Ngayesah Ab Hamid, Azreen Jihan Che Mohd Hashim

Volume 9  |  Issue 1 |  Pages: 33-36 | PDF | HTML   


Abstract: The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of perceived scarcity, negative feelings, and status consumption on food waste among consumers in Malaysia. A total of 258 questionnaires were collected via convenience sampling from customers who purchased food. The findings suggest that negative feelings and status consumption are significant and positively related to food waste. However, perceived scarcity shows no relationship to food waste. This study indicates that consumer’s behaviors and motivations in buying food can lead to food waste. This study provides empirical and managerial contributions to the underlying factors that influence food waste among consumers. Due to the alarming level of food waste and limited research on consumer food waste behavior in the medium to a high-income group of countries such as Malaysia, there is an urgent call to conduct this study.

Keywords: Food Waste, Negative Feelings, Perceived Scarcity, Status Consumption





Application of Principal Component Analysis on English Proficiency among Technical University Students

Siti Zahariah Abdul Wahab, Yasmin Yahya, Norhatta Mohd, Nurul Sharaz Azmanuddin, Nurhadiana Nurulmatin

Volume 9  |  Issue 1 |  Pages: 37-43 | PDF | HTML   


Abstract: The purpose of this study was to explore the level of English proficiency among students from Universiti Kuala Lumpur, Malaysian Institute of Information Technology (UniKL MIIT). This study also observed the relationship between the level of four main skills: Reading, Writing, Listening and Speaking by distributing an online questionnaire to 116 students from bachelor programme. The data was then analysed using the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to reduce the dimensionality of the dataset. The research findings revealed that the students’ level of Reading, Writing, Listening and Speaking proficiency are intermediate. The findings also showed that there is a significant relationship between each Reading, Writing, Listening and Speaking proficiency of the students. On the other hand, the finding also reflects that students acquired the lowest in writing skill. Finally, the research draws conclusion and recommendations based on the level of students’ English Proficiency and the ways to improve students’ achievement in English.


Keywords: Data analysis, Principal Component, Eigenvector, English proficiency





Assessing Customer Selection Criteria of Islamic Banking in Malaysia

Muhammad Hilmi Zakaria, Zalina Zainudin, Abdul Razak Abdul Hadi

Volume 9  |  Issue 1 |  Pages: 44-49 | PDF | HTML   

Abstract: Before the existence of Islamic banking in Malaysia, the financial services activities were dominated by conventional way of lending which is interest-based lending. Since the establishment of Islamic financial services in 1962, there has been enormous growth in the Islamic products in the banking sector and expected to account for 40 per cent of total financing in Malaysia. However, Islamic banking sector is experiencing stiff competition from its counterpart, the conventional banking sectors every turn. Bank’s ability to fulfil the customer requirements is claimed to be one of the essential factors to overcome this stiff competition. This study reviews the literature on the factors affecting customers’ selection criteria adopting Islamic banks. The study focusses on analysing three factors that play role on customer selection for Islamic banking namely religion, social influence, and bank image. Conclusion of the literature are drawn that among the important selection criteria are religion, social influence, and bank image. This study will be useful for Islamic banks to gain more insight and maintain their existence customer, and policymakers, regulators, and the relevant stakeholders a strategize a method towards the development and growth of Malaysia Islamic banking and finance industry.

Keywords: Islamic banking, customer selection criteria, religion, Malaysia





Collecting Fees for Safekeeping of Collateral: Rules and Applications in the Contemporary Islamic Financial Institutions

Abdul Rahman Al-Saadi

Volume 9  |  Issue 1 |  Pages: 50-53 | PDF | HTML   


Abstract: The study aims to examine the Shari’ah legality of whether pledgor or pledgee should take care of collateral (marhun) during the period of the loan. Moreover, the study seeks to provide possible applications for the pledge (rahn) and clarify Shari’ah rules for each application. Malaysian Islamic banks apply pledge products by offering loans (qardh hasan) to the customers and requesting gold assets as collateral against a loan. The banks charge safekeeping fees to keep the gold until the maturity date of the loan. This practice combines loan and sale contracts in a single transaction. Accordingly, the study seeks to evaluate this practice from an Islamic point of view. Islamic law categorizes loans under charity contracts while the sale is categorized under contracts of exchange (mu’awadhat). The nature of the two contracts is different. Therefore, the study examines categories that combine loans and contracts of exchange in one transaction. The results reveal that it is not permissible for the pledgee to charge fees higher than market fees for the keeping of collateral. Charging fees that are higher than the market price is considered riba. According to Shari’ah rules, any kind of benefit derived from a loan is riba and thus it is prohibited. However, charging fees that are comparable to the market price and cover the actual cost for safekeeping of collateral is permissible. According to Islamic Fiqh Academy resolutions and AAOIFI standards, Islamic banks may charge fees for safekeeping of gold collateral considering that fees should be to the market fees and should only cover actual expenses.


Keywords: Charitable Contracts, Contracts of Exchange, Pledgor, Pledgee, Rahn, Safekeeping Fees, Salaf wa Bai’





Determinants of Whistleblowing Intention in Organization

Azizan Mohamed-Isa, Ahmed Razman Abdul Latiff, Mohammad Noor Hisham Osman, Arman Hj Ahmad

Volume 9  |  Issue 1 |  Pages: 54-58 | PDF | HTML   


Abstract: Whistleblowers have been applauded for their heroic acts for disclosing unethical practices in organization worldwide such as Enron, Worldcom and Cambridge Analytica to name a few.  Whistleblowing has been regarded as one of the internal control mechanisms to prevent organizational wrongdoings. Despite establishment and enhancement of law, policies and regulations enacted to whistleblowing, potential whistleblowers remain silent and reluctant to blow the whistle. It is therefore important to examine the factors that encourage individual to come forward to disclose the wrongdoing. This conceptual article reviews prior literature that examined determinants of whistleblowing intentions. Building from the theory and following the prior literature, the article expanded the review by looking into the interaction of determinants such as ethical leadership, emotional intelligence and whistleblowing intention. Hence, it is expected that study of such interaction would create new avenues for future research.


Keywords: Whistleblowing intention, ethical leadership, emotional intelligence, organizational misconduct





Social Capital in Marketing and Its Implication to the Social Outcome

Zurul Aisya Osman, Nursyuhadah Abdul Rahman, Nur Syairah Ani

Volume 9  |  Issue 1 |  Pages: 59-64 | PDF | HTML   


Abstract: Social capital refers to economic resource involving elements such as norms, trust and social network that facilitate society’s action. From marketing perspective, social capital mediates the experience of the individual, organization and the entire society via enabling shared values to spread through social connections, hence generating social outcome. Nonetheless, conceptualization of social capital within marketing paradigm has been inadequate despite some empirical works. Consequently, elements of norms, trust and social network which signify long term establishment of a business, has often been neglected. In this study, analyses are performed on existing scholarly published papers to gauge the conceptual and empirical findings from existing studies pertaining social capital in marketing as well as its implication towards the society’s outcome. In this regards, we identify the contributions of social capital which mediates the relationship between marketing strategies and its performance. Subsequently, we characterize how social capital in marketing affects the social outcome in the contemporary world. The study proposes that social capital is a useful and appropriate resource to enhance marketing performance that would engender benefits at the societal level. However, social capital could also hinder the performance should it is not being properly acknowledged and assessed. Ultimately, the study will stimulate more efforts to emphasize on social capital among marketers and the community as a means to further enhance the desired social outcome. Additionally, this study will also serve as guidance for future researchers to extend the finding into more profound studies in the area of social capital in marketing.


Keywords: Social capital, marketing, social outcome





The Effect of Retailer’s Perceived Service Innovation and Value Co-Creation Behavior on SME’s Brand Equity

Nor Asiah Omar, Ahmad Sabri Kassim, Muhamad Azrin Nazri, Noor Hasni Juhdi

Volume 9  |  Issue 1 |  Pages: 65-71 | PDF | HTML   


Abstract: The purpose of this study is to examine the predictive effect of value-co creation, and service innovation on SME’s brand equity in Malaysia. 529 questionnaires were collected via judgemental sampling from customers who patronizing SMEs involved in Food and Beverages (F & B) services. The findings show that the impact of value co-creation on SME’s brand equity is positive. Moreover, the retailer’s perceived service innovation is positively related to SME’s brand equity. This study provides theoretical, empirical and managerial contributions to the field of brand and service management from consumers’ perspective. The outcome of the study will benefit SME retailers’ particular to F & B operators to manage their customers in a more excellent manner.


Keywords: Value CoCreation, Service Innovation, SMEs Brand Equity, F&B Services





Using Activity Theory to Review Internet Technology Engagement by Real Estate Negotiator in Malaysia towards Agency Best Practice

 Azir Rezha bin Norizan, Ahmad Naim Che Pee

Volume 9  |  Issue 1 |  Pages: 72-76 | PDF | HTML   


Abstract: Real estate is a revelatory industry for the study of ICT uses because it is information-intensive and realtors are information intermediaries between buyers and sellers. As agents, buyers and sellers increase their uses of ICT, they also change how they approach their daily work. Information intensive industries, by their nature, show the greatest impacts due to ICTs that enable information sharing and the bypassing of traditional information intermediaries. However, while the effects and uses of ICT are often associated with organizations (and industries), their use occurs at the individual level. In other words, it is changes to individual work related to the use of ICTs that reshape both organization and industry structures, and vice-versa. In this study, we use activity theory to provide an analytic perspective within the setting in Malaysia. Data reveal historical structures of this industry guiding the day-to-day work of agents, buyers, sellers and the role of agency. Many of these structures are embodied in a set of explicit contracts that reify existing structures and legitimize realtors’ actions. While looking from the agencies practices, we explain possible improvement in the real estate industry following the advancement of internet & mobile technology, viewing the possibilities towards the use of IOT in real estate industry.


Keywords: ICT, Real Estate, IOT, agency, digital media





Adsorption of Chromium from Aqueous Solution by Lignocellulosic Biomass (Pinus palustris): Studies on Equilibrium Isotherm, and Kinetics

Narendrakumar G, Senthil kumar P

 Volume 9  |  Issue 1 |  Pages: 77-84 | PDF | HTML   


Abstract: Different methods to convert biomass into useful materials and products without generating pollutants will be useful for global environmental protection. The present study deals with the preparation of adsorbent from a suitable lignocellulosic biomass, Pinus palustris seeds. The adsorbent thus prepared will be used for the removal of heavy metals from aqueous solutions. Factors influencing the adsorption characteristics under batch conditions were studied for chromium concentrations in range of 30 – 150 ppm. The studies were conducted to optimize the size of the adsorbent, temperature and contact time. The maximum adsorption is attained at a pH of 6.5 and a dosage of 3g. The effective temperature for the reaction was at 37oC. The removal percentage increase when the optimized condition of different parameters such as size, temperature, contact time, concentration, pH and dosage. The adsorption isotherms showed that the Freundlich Isotherm is a better adsorption model and the characteristic parameters were determined. The results of the kinetic models showed that the pseudo second order kinetics was found to correlate with the experimental data. The present analysis, the absorbent that is produced from Pinus palustris seed has an efficient adsorption for chromium.


Keywords: Lignocellulose, adsorption, isotherms, kinetics





Mg-Cr Layered Double Hydroxide with Intercalated Oxalic Anion for Removal Cationic Dyes Rhodamine B and Methylene Blue

Arini Fousty Badri, Neza Rahayu Palapa, Risfidian Mohadi, Mardiyanto, Aldes Lesbani

 Volume 9  |  Issue 1 |  Pages: 85-94 | PDF | HTML   


Abstract: A MgCr-based layered double hydroxide (LDH) was synthesized by a coprecipitation method, followed by an intercalation process using an oxalic anion. The materials were characterized using X-ray diffraction analysis, FT-IR spectroscopy, and pH pzc measurement. The materials were then applied as adsorbents for removal of methylene blue (MB) and rhodamine B (RhB) from aqueous solution. Pristine Mg/Cr LDH exhibited RhB adsorption capacity of 32.154 mg g⁻1, whereas the use of intercalated Mg/Cr LDH caused an increase in the capacity (139.526 mg g⁻1). Kinetic studies indicated that the dye adsorption using both LDHs followed a pseudo-second-order kinetic model; the K2 values of pristine and modified Mg/Cr LDH for RhB and MB were 6.970, 0.001, 0.426, and 2.056 g mg⁻1 min⁻1, respectively. The thermodynamic study identified that the adsorption of both dyes onto the LDHs was a spontaneous process and can be classified as physical adsorption with adsorption energies of <40 kJ/mol. Moreover, the desorption and regeneration experiments indicated the high economic feasibility and reusability of the LDHs. By using HCl as the optimal solvent, the LDHs could desorb as much as 98% of the dye and could be used as adsorbents with high adsorption capacity over three cycles.


Keywords: Layered double hydroxide, MgCr, rhodamine B, methylene blue, intercalation





Surface Modification of Powdered Maize Husk with Sodium Hydroxide for Enhanced Adsorption of Pb(II) Ions from Aqueous Solution

 Chidi E. Duru Margaret C. Enedoh, Ijeoma A. Duru

 Volume 9  |  Issue 1 |  Pages: 95-104 | PDF | HTML   


Abstract: The impact of sodium hydroxide pretreatment of maize husk on its lead ion removal efficiency was investigated.  Pretreatment of maize husk with this alkali increased its surface area and porosity from 528.74 m2/g and 0.477 cm3/g to 721.54 m2/g and 0.642 cm3/g, respectively. Batch adsorption studies were carried out to evaluate the effects of initial pH, adsorbent dose, initial lead ion concentration, initial solution temperature, and contact time on the adsorption process. The maximum removal efficiency of maize husk at pH 5 and adsorbent dose 2 g/L was 62.85 %, which increased to 82.84 % after pretreatment and was attained in 15 min.  The adsorption data for the natural and pretreated maize husk were best fitted in the Freundlich isotherm model, with their adsorption intensity (n) having values >1, which indicated that lead ion adsorption onto the adsorbent types was a favorable physical process. The adsorption of lead ions onto the adsorbents followed the pseudo-first-order kinetic model. The experimental adsorption capacities of maize husk (31.43 mg/g) and its modified form (41.22 mg/g) were very close to those obtained from this model (31.03 mg/g and 40.65 mg/g respectively). The ΔH and ΔG values of the adsorption process showed that the adsorption of lead ions by both adsorbents was an endothermic process and occurred spontaneously. Alkali pretreated maize husk can therefore be used as a cheap adsorbent to remove lead ions from aqueous solution.


Keywords: Lead, maize husk, adsorbent, pretreatment, isotherm





The Implementation of E-Court in Administrative Court to Develop Access to Justice in Indonesia

Aju Putrijanti, Kadek Cahya Susila Wibawa

Volume 9  |  Issue 1 |  Pages: 105-109 | PDF | HTML   


Abstract: Administrative Court has an absolute competence to settle administrative disputes. Sustainable Development Goals is a program conducted by United Nations with seventeen goals and the aims is no one left behind. The difficulty to get access to justice is one issue of SDG’s. This is normative legal research and research data used are secondary data, and data will be analyzed using descriptive analysis. Research questions are how the role of administrative court in e-court is, and how access to justice from is administrative court perspectives. Development of technology gives benefits also in litigation process, and judiciary systems in Indonesia have implement the use of technology into regulations. Judiciary system developed the e-court with aims to increase the public service of judiciary system. Implementation of e-court for Administrative Court cannot fully electronically, since there are two processes which cannot implement using the technologies. The absolute competence of Administrative Court become broaden, after Law Number 30 Year 2014 of Governance Administration stipulated, which gives access to justice become easier for people to protect their rights. The novelty is Administrative Court using hybrid system between the conventional and modern system, since dismissal process and preparatory examination should be done before enters the court room. The shifting paradigm of administrative law gives more access to justice for justice seeker, because it gives more competence to Administrative Court.


Keywords: Administrative Court, E-court, Access to Justice





The Reconstruction of Public Information Dispute Resolution as the Effort in Realizing Substantive Justice in Indonesia

Kadek Cahya Susila Wibawa, Aju Putrijanti

Volume 9  |  Issue 1 |  Pages: 110-116 | PDF | HTML   


Abstract: The right to information is a human right as derogable right. Fulfilment of the right to information often leads to information disputes with Information and Documentation Management Officer (IDMO) as administrative officials who are given the task of managing information and documentation. Information dispute resolution becomes important to be resolved immediately because it is related to fulfilling a sense of justice and fulfilling the right to information for the community. The Establishment of the Government Administration Act (GA Act) causes the dualism of information dispute resolution. Article 53 of the GA Act will be the basis for resolving information disputes in the administrative court domain, while the Public Information Officer/PIO Act is the basis for resolving information disputes within the Information Commission domain. This dualism needs to be resolved to ensure legal certainty for the government and society as Justicia Belen. The development of dispute resolution reconstruction of information is conducted by strengthening information dispute resolution in non-litigation. Ideal information dispute resolution should be resolved first through administrative remedies (objections and administrative appeals) and through the Information Commission. The court becomes the ultimum remedium in resolving a dispute. Therefore, strengthening the Information Commission in terms of development, finance and authority is one way to strengthen the resolution of information disputes outside the court.


Keywords: Information Commission; Public Information Dispute; Information Openness





Sustainability Management and Planning of Coastal Areas and Small Islands to Ensure Environmental Justice for Fishermen Communities

Nuswantoro Dwiwarno, Lazarus Tri Setyawanta, Retno Saraswati

Volume 9  |  Issue 1 |  Pages: 117-121 | PDF | HTML   


Abstract: As the largest archipelagic state in the world, most provinces in Indonesia have coastal areas with different physical characteristics. In addition, Indonesia has small islands located on the outer side of the country. So far, there are unclear regulations and management to protect the ecological environment in these areas, as well as legal protection for residents. This study seeks to analyze the sustainability management in coastal waters and development planning of small islands to ensure environmental justice for fishermen communities with special reference to Law No. 1 of 2014 regarding the Management of Coastal Areas and Small Islands. This study also wants to analyze the obstacles in the implementation of Law No. 1 of 2014 regarding Management of Coastal Areas and Small Islands. The results showed that the coastal waters management scheme according to the law is carried out through the mechanism of location permits and management permits and requires that the permits granted must not violate the decision of the Constitutional Court. In addition, in this law, the government grants the community the right to propose the preparation of Strategic Zoning Plan for the Management of Coastal Areas and Small Islands.


Keywords: Sustainable Development, Spatial Planning, Marine Environment, Small Island, Environmental Justice, Indigenous Rights





Adsorption of High Chromium Concentrations from Industrial Wastewater Using Different Agricultural Residuals

El-Baz A. A., Hendy I., Dohdoh A. M., Srour M. I.

Volume 9  |  Issue 1 |  Pages: 122-138 | PDF | HTML   


Abstract: Hexavalent chromium Cr (VI) is a toxic material used in many industries such as tanneries and electroplating industries. Most of the previous researches studied the removal of chromium at lower concentrations up to 600 mg/L but did not tackle the behavior at higher concentrations, which resemble the real concentration of studied tanneries effluents. The present research is a comparative study of different agricultural low cost adsorbents in the removal of high Chromium concentration from industrial wastewater up to 1000 mg/L, compared to a commercial activated carbon. The tested adsorbents are (Banana Waste (BW), Sawdust (SD), Phragmites Australis (PA), Sugarcane Bagasse (SCB), Pea pod peels (PPP) and Rice straw (RS)). The materials were chemically pretreated with acid-alkali except BW was treated with acid only, to improve adsorbent metal binding capacity. Batch experiments were conducted to study the effect of pH, adsorbent dosage, contact time, initial Chromium concentration and temperature on the removal efficiency of Chromium from wastewater. The experiments were conducted in two sets, one for lower concentration (25-50-100-200-400) mg/L and the other for higher concentration (600-800-1000) to simulate the concentration of Chromium in tannery industry effluents.  At 1000 mg/L initial concentration, BW achieved the optimum removal efficiency of 73.28% at pH = 3, adsorbent dosage = 25 g/L and contact time of 3 hours with the adsorption capacity was 39 mg/g. For SD at pH=2, 3 hours contact time, 10 g/L dosage, and 30oC the removal ratio was 64.83% and the adsorption capacity was 86.30 mg/g. The equilibrium data for various agricultural adsorbents was being tested with various adsorption isotherm models such as Langmuir, Freundlich and Tempkin. At low concentrations, AC, BW, PA and SCB follows Freundlich isotherm model while SD follows Langmuir isotherm model. At higher concentrations, BW, SD, PA follows Langmuir isotherm while SCB follows Tempkin isotherm model. To evaluate the mechanism of Cr adsorption on different adsorbents, Pseudo-first-order and Pseudo-second-order equations were used. The adsorption process follows Pseudo-second-order for all adsorbents, which confirms the chemisorption of Cr (VI) on different adsorbents.


Keywords: Chromium; adsorption; low cost adsorbents; Industrial wastewater; isotherms; kinetics; high concentrations.





The Research of Food Waste Pre-Treatment Technology for Incineration in Malaysia

Ahmad Faizal Zamli , W.M.F. Wan Mahmood, W.A.W. Ghopa, M.T. Lim

Volume 9  |  Issue 1 |  Pages: 139-147 | PDF | HTML   


Abstract: Food waste and food loss are used to describe materials that are actually produced for consumption, but are discarded, lost, degraded or contaminated. Food waste (FW) is one of the main parts of municipal solid waste. Landfill is not preferable when compared with other types of waste handling method. It has been reported that the impact of landfill on climate change can be ten times higher than other waste handling methods. However, most FW end up in landfills. This paper reviewed the performance of several food waste pre-treatment technologies to convert FW into feedstock for incinerators/boilers in terms of electrical power generation purposes. The performance of food waste pre-treatment methods and their products were extensively discussed and compared in this paper in terms of calorific value, energy density, and compound reduction, which later directly corresponded with the energy, environmental, and economic factors for the sustainability of future renewable power generation.


Keywords: Alternative fuel; bioenergy; deep drying;  fuel pre-treatment; alternative fuel; waste to energy; energy densification; thermochemical process





A Review: Plastics Waste Biodegradation Using Plastics-Degrading Bacteria

 Angga Puja Asiandu, Agus Wahyudi, Septi Widiya Sari

Volume 9  |  Issue 1 |  Pages: 148-157 | PDF | HTML   


Abstract: Plastic is a synthetic polymer that is widely used in almost every field of life. The massive use of this synthetic polymer has led to the accumulation of this polymer in the environment thus polluting the environment. The general techniques in preventing plastic waste as landfill, incineration, recycling are considered less effective as they release some hazardous materials to the environment. Thus, the appropriate technique is needed to overcome this problem. Biodegradation is an enzymatic degradation involving some microorganisms including bacteria. This technique can be used to prevent the plastic waste problem. Plastic waste biodegradation occurred through several steps, including biodeterioration, depolymerization, and assimilation. Within this process, bacteria will secrete many enzymes that will degrade and convert plastic polymers into microbial biomass and gases. Thus, this process has fewer even no side effect. 


Keywords: Bacteria, Biodegradation, Enzymes, Plastics Waste





Treatment of Wastewater from Pulp and Paper Mill using Coagulation and Flocculation

Balpreet Kaur, Rajeev Kumar Garg, Anirudh Pratap Singh

Volume 9  |  Issue 1 |  Pages: 158-163 | PDF | HTML   


Abstract: In this work, an effluent sample from a local medium-scale paper mill has been treated using alum as a coagulant and chitosan (natural polymer) as a flocculant. Initially, the dose of alum has been optimized by adjusting the zeta potential to near zero for best coagulation results. The dose of 0.04 g/L was able to merely coagulate and unable to cause sweep flocculation of impurities. Then, at the optimised dose of 0.04 g/L various concentrations of chitosan in the range of 0.1-0.5 g/L were investigated for obtaining maximum flocculation of the suspended impurities. The physico-chemical parameters like pH, total suspended solids (TSS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), absorbance, and zeta potential were studied for comprehending the flocculation behavior. The observed results exhibited that the maximum flocculation was achieved at the chitosan concentration of 0.3 g/L. At the flocculant concentration of 0.3 g/L, 81% TSS removal and maximum 78% COD were reduced. Moreover, zeta potential value of the collected supernatant was close to zero (–1.49 mV) which showed larger floc formation and easy settleability of the impurities. In all, it can be said that the utilization of chitosan along with alum may be a better option for the treatment of pulp and paper wastewater as well as other similar types of wastewater.


Keywords: Pulp and paper mill waste water; coagulation-flocculation; chitosan; zeta potential; COD





Effect of Temperature and Pyrolysis Time in Liquid Smoke Production from Dried Water Hyacinth

Rita Dwi Ratnani, Hadiyanto and Widiyanto

Volume 9  |  Issue 1 |  Pages: 164-171 | PDF | HTML   


Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the use of water hyacinth to produce liquid smoke. The study observes the temperature and time variables of yield, pH, density, and refractive index in the production of liquid smoke from water hyacinth. The sequence of the work is as follows: first, water hyacinth was cut into 5 cm sections and then sun-dried for 2–3 d, depending on the weather. Next, 550 g of dried water hyacinth was added to the pyrolysis reactor. The temperature variations were 200°C, 400°C, and 600°C, and the time variations were 1, 4, and 7 h. As a result, liquid smoke was produced with varying yield, pH, densities, and refractive indices. The best results in this research are liquid smoke pyrolysis at a temperature of 400°C and 4 h with the acquisition of a yield of 93 mL, pH 2–4, a density of 1.080,8 gr/mL, and a refractive index of 1.339,6, with chemical component 41.45% total acid, 2.44% phenol and 56.10% carbonyl.


Keywords: Influence of temperature and time, liquid smoke, pyrolysis, water hyacinth






Verification of the effect of Raw Materials Mill Dust on soil stabilization: An experimental study

Fatima Alsaleh, Feras Al Adday, Ahmed Al-Abu Hussein

Volume 9  |  Issue 1 |  Pages: 172-177 | PDF | HTML   


Abstract: Cement plants produce large quantities of dust, which is an important source of pollution. Among these pollutants is raw materials mill dust (RMMD), it is a dust produced during the grinding of raw materials. RMMD differs in chemical composition from cement kiln dust (CKD), where CKD is a by-product that collects in the electrostatic filters of a cement kiln. A lot of studies have been done around the world to find effective ways to recycle CKD and use it again in soil stabilization to avoid the failure of the entire pavement in the future as well as an economical and environmental solution, while there is a dearth of research done on RMMD.  In this study, the performance of a weak subgrade for one of the sites in Aleppo city was examined, where its physical and mechanical properties (plasticity index, maximum dry density, optimum water content, and California bearing ratio (CBR)), were determined. Then RMMD was added to the subgrade samples according to five ratios 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20% of the dry weight of the soil. The research concluded that adding the RMMD to the weak subgrade by 20% of its dry weight is the optimal ratio, improved its performance, as the plasticity index decreased by 13%, and the CBR increased up to 63 %. Thus, the bearing capacity increases, it saves costs and reduces future pavement maintenance.


Keywords: Desertification, Deforestation, Hazard, Drought, Wind erosion







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