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Note to users: Articles in Press are peer reviewed, accepted articles to be published in this journal. When the final article is assigned to volumes/issues of the publication, the Article in Press version will be removed and the final version will appear in the associated published volumes/issues of the publication. The date an article was first made available online will be carried over. Please be aware that, although Articles in Press do not have all bibliographic details available yet, they can already be cited using the year of online publication, as follows: author(s), article title, Journal (year).

 

 

 

 

Bioremediation of Crude Oil-Contaminated Soil in the Presence of Nickel, Zinc and Cadmium Heavy Metals Using Bacterial and Fungal Consortia-Bioaugmentation Strategy 

Samuel Enahoro Agarry, Ganiyu Kayode Latinwo, Ebenezer Olujimi Dada, Chiedu Ngozi Owabor

Volume 7  |  Issue 2 |  Pages: 179-195 | PDF | HTML

 

Abstract: The study evaluated the effectiveness of indigenous bacterial consortia (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis and Micrococcus letus) and fungal consortia (Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus carmari and Penicillium notatum) as well as their combination (bacterial-fungal consortia) as bioaugmentation agents in the soil bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in the absence and presence of nickel, zinc and cadmium heavy metals. Bioremediation was carried out in 10% w/w crude oil-contaminated soil microcosms for 35 days in the absence and presence of nickel, zinc, and cadmium bioaugmented with or without bacterial, fungal and bacterial-fungal consortia, respectively. In the heavy metal-free soil microcosms, 72.5%, 64% and 90.7% total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) biodegradation were attained with bacterial, fungal and bacterial-fungal consortia, respectively, while 45% TPH biodegradation was achieved in the non-bioaugmented soil microcosm. In the heavy metal-soil microcosms: nickel, zinc, cadmium and mixed form (nickel + zinc + cadmium), 79.2%, 81.4%, 75.3% and 68.2% TPH biodegradation was correspondingly obtained with bacterial consortia; 69.4%, 66.4%, 68.2%, and 60.6% with fungal consortia; while 99%, 98.5%, 95.7%, and 100% was respectively attained with bacterial-fungal consortia. The kinetics of TPH biodegradation were adequately described by the first-order kinetics and half-life times were estimated. Soil microcosm bioaugmented with bacterial-fungal consortia displayed the highest biodegradation rate constant with the lowest half-life times in the absence and presence of heavy metals. Therefore, the results suggest that microbial consortia (bacterial and fungal) could be very effective for soil bioremediation of crude oil in the presence of heavy metals.

 

Keywords: Bacteria; Bioaugmentation; Bioremediation; Crude oil; Fungi; Heavy metals

 

 

Activities of Crude, Acetone and Ethanolic Extracts of Capsicum frutescens var. minima Fruit Against Larva of Anopheles gambiae

Sylvester Chibueze Izah

Volume 7  |  Issue 2 |  Pages: 196-200 | PDF | HTML

 

Abstract: This study evaluated the activities of crude, acetone and ethanolic extracts of Capsicum frutescens var. minima fruit against Anopheles gambiae larva. The bioassay was carried out for 24 hours using Anopheles gambiae larva obtained from the wild. The Anopheles gambiae was identified following standard protocol. Results showed that the mortality rate increased statistically at p<0.05 as the concentration of the plant extracts increased. The ethanolic, acetone and crude extracts had LC50 value of 115.24 ppm, 173.16 ppm and 265.19 ppm respectively, being apparently different. The efficacy of the Capsicum frutescens var. minima fruit were in the order aqueous < acetone < ethanol. Based on the findings of this study, there is the need for research to focus on the isolation and purification of the exact bioactive ingredients that enables Capsicum frutescens var. minima fruit confers insecticidal potentials.

 

Keywords: Capsicum frutescens, Malaria, Medicinal plants, Solvents, Vector borne disease

 

 

 

 

 

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